NAME

Perl::Critic::Policy::Compatibility::ConstantLeadingUnderscore - new enough "constant" module for leading underscores

DESCRIPTION

This policy is part of the Perl::Critic::Pulp add-on. It asks that if you have a constant with a leading underscore,

    use constant _FOO ...  # leading underscore on name

then you explicitly declare use 5.6 or use constant 1.02, or higher, since constant.pm before that did not allow leading underscores.

    use constant _FOO => 123;        # bad

    use 5.006;
    use constant _FOO => 123;        # ok

    use constant 1.02;
    use constant _FOO => 123;        # ok

    use constant 1.02 _FOO => 123;   # ok

The idea is to avoid trouble in code which might run on Perl 5.005, or might in principle still run there. On that basis this policy is under the "compatibility" theme (see "POLICY THEMES" in Perl::Critic).

Asking for the new enough module use constant 1.02 is suggested, since it's the module feature which is required and the code might then still run on Perl 5.005 or earlier if the user has a suitable constant.pm from CPAN.

Details

A version declaration must be before the first leading underscore, so it's checked before the underscore is attempted (and would give an error).

    use constant _FOO => 123;        # bad
    use 5.006;

A require for the Perl version is not enough since use constant is at BEGIN time, before plain code.

    require 5.006;                   # doesn't run early enough
    use constant _FOO => 123;        # bad

But a require within a BEGIN block is ok (a past style, still found occasionally).

    BEGIN { require 5.006 }
    use constant _FOO => 123;        # ok

    BEGIN {
      require 5.006;
      and_other_setups ...;
    }
    use constant _FOO => 123;        # ok

Currently ConstantLeadingUnderscore pays no attention to any conditionals within the BEGIN, it assumes any require there always runs. It might be tricked by obscure tests but hopefully anything like that is rare or does the right thing anyway.

A quoted version number like

    use constant '1.02';    # no good

is no good, only a bare number is recognised by the use statement as a version check. A string like that in fact goes through to constant as a name to define, and which it will reject.

Leading underscores in a multi-constant hash are not flagged, since new enough constant.pm to have multi-constants is new enough to have underscores. See Compatibility::ConstantPragmaHash for multi-constants version check.

    use constant { _FOO => 1 };      # not checked

Leading double-underscore is disallowed by all versions of constant.pm. That's not reported by this policy since the code won't run at all.

    use constant __FOO => 123;  # not allowed by any constant.pm

Drawbacks

Explicitly adding required version numbers in the code can be irritating, especially if other things you're doing only run on 5.6 up anyway. But declaring what code needs is accurate, it allows maybe for backports of modules, and explicit versions can be grepped out to create or check Makefile.PL or Build.PL prereqs.

As always, if you don't care about this or if you only ever use Perl 5.6 anyway then you can disable ConstantLeadingUnderscore from your .perlcriticrc in the usual way (see "CONFIGURATION" in Perl::Critic),

    [-Compatibility::ConstantLeadingUnderscore]

OTHER WAYS TO DO IT

It's easy to write your own constant subr and it can have any name at all (anything acceptable to Perl), bypassing the sanity checks or restrictions in constant.pm. Only the () prototype is a bit obscure.

    sub _FOO () { return 123 }

The key benefit of subs like this, whether from constant.pm or explicitly, is that the value is inlined and can be constant-folded in an arithmetic expression etc (see "Constant Functions" in perlsub).

    print 2*_FOO;   # folded to 246 at compile-time

The purpose of a leading underscore is normally a hint that the sub is meant to be private to the module and/or its friends. If you don't need the constant folding then a my scalar is even more private, being invisible to anything outside relevant scope,

    my $FOO = 123;         # more private
    # ...
    do_something ($FOO);   # nothing to constant-fold anyway

The scalar returned from constant.pm subs is flagged read-only, which might prevent accidental mis-use when passed around. The Readonly module gives the same effect on variables. If you have Readonly::XS then it's just a flag too (no performance penalty on using the value).

    use Readonly;
    Readonly::Scalar my $FOO => 123;

SEE ALSO

Perl::Critic::Pulp, Perl::Critic, Perl::Critic::Policy::Compatibility::ConstantPragmaHash, Perl::Critic::Policy::ValuesAndExpressions::ProhibitConstantPragma, Perl::Critic::Policy::Modules::RequirePerlVersion

constant, "Constant Functions" in perlsub

HOME PAGE

http://user42.tuxfamily.org/perl-critic-pulp/index.html

COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2019 Kevin Ryde

Perl-Critic-Pulp is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option) any later version.

Perl-Critic-Pulp is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with Perl-Critic-Pulp. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.