Plack::Middleware::Debug::RefCounts - Reference count debugging for Plack apps


version v0.910.1


    use Plack::Middleware::Debug::RefCounts;

    enable 'Debug', panels => [ 'RefCounts', @any_other_panels ];


This module aims to provide debugging tools to help identify memory leaks.

It uses Devel::Gladiator to compare reference counts at the beginning and end of requests.

To get the most out of this module, you should:

1. Run you application with a single worker process.

The middleware attempts not to unduly accumulate references. As such, it tracks references counts in a simple package variable ("Arena_Refs"), which does not scale to multiple processes.

2. Identify what's growing unexpectedly, then dive in.

See the explanation under "PLACK_MW_DEBUG_REFCOUNTS_DUMP_RE".

Generally, just be aware that you're potentially looking at A LOT of information, and trying to debug it takes up a lot of resources. System errors may occur if you're too aggressive.

3. Repeat tests to make sure they are consistently leaking memory.

Objects can be loaded the first time you load a specific web page, and increase memory usage. The key is that they don't continue to increase memory after repeated hits.

Preloading data prior to forking can help with this problem, but it can be hard to capture every single object or singleton that needs to be loaded.



A regex to be matched against changing counts in "calculate_arena_refs". If a variable's ref type (or class) matches it, the variable will be dumped to STDERR. Only newly-discovered variables are dumped.

WARNING: Dumping certain variables may crash your process, because there is so much to dump. Look at the ref counts first to figure out what you want to dump, and try to work around any bizarre behaviors.


A boolean, defaulting to 0.

If the PSGI application supports cleanup and this variable is true, then ref counting will happen during cleanup. This prevents rendering this refcount information in the debug panel.



This stores all of the types and memory locations of every variable, except SCALARs and REFs. Data is captured at the end of each dispatch.

NOTE this is just a package variable - debugging memory works best with a single worker anyway.



The standard debug middleware interface. Runs the reference count comparison as late as possible (ie. during cleanup if supported).


    ($is_first, \%diff_list) = $self->update_arena_counts;

Updates the arena counts and returns a boolean indicating whether this is the first runthrough and a diff of hashes via "compare_arena_counts".


    \%diff_list = $self->calculate_arena_refs;

Walks the arena (of Perl variables) via "walk_arena" in Devel::Gladiator, and catalogs all non-SCALAR/REFs into ref types and memory locations. Returns a diff list hashref.

After the first (initializing) run, if "PLACK_MW_DEBUG_REFCOUNTS_DUMP_RE" is set, newly discovered matching variables will be dumped to STDERR.


    @lines = $self->compare_arena_counts(\%diff_list);

Using a diff list from "calculate_arena_refs", this displays the new ref counts on STDERR, and returns those displayed lines.

Anything listed here has either shrunk or grown the variables within the arena.

Example output:

    === Reference growth counts ===
    +4    (diff) =>       4 (now) => Class::MOP::Class::Immutable::Moose::Meta::Class
    +1    (diff) =>       1 (now) => Class::MOP::Method::Wrapped
    +12   (diff) =>      19 (now) => DBD::mysql::st_mem
    +24   (diff) =>      38 (now) => DBI::st
    +1    (diff) =>       1 (now) => Data::Visitor::Callback
    +4    (diff) =>       4 (now) => DateTime
    +1    (diff) =>       1 (now) => DateTime::TimeZone::America::New_York
    +1    (diff) =>       1 (now) => Devel::StackTrace
    +1    (diff) =>       1 (now) => FCGI
    +3    (diff) =>       3 (now) => FCGI::Stream



The tool used for leak hunting.


General debugging framework.


Monitors RSS, which is not particularly helpful for tracking down memory leaks.


As of writing, is broken by a 2015 bug in B::Size2 (and neither module has been updated since 2014).


Grant Street Group <>


This software is Copyright (c) 2018 - 2020 by Grant Street Group.

This is free software, licensed under:

  The Artistic License 2.0 (GPL Compatible)