Progress::Any - Record progress to any output


This document describes version 0.220 of Progress::Any (from Perl distribution Progress-Any), released on 2022-10-18.


Example of using in a script with terminal progress bar as output (progress bar will be cleared on finish()) (you'll need to install Progress::Any::Output::TermProgressBarColor as well):

 use Progress::Any '$progress';
 use Progress::Any::Output 'TermProgressBarColor';

 for (1..10) {
     $progress->update(message => "Doing item $_");
     sleep 1;

Sample output:

 % ./
  60% [Doing item 6====           ]3s left

Another example, this time with terminal message as output:

 use Progress::Any '$progress';
 use Progress::Any::Output 'TermMessage', template => '[%n] %P/%T (%6.2p%%) %m';

 for (1..10) {
     $progress->update(message => "Item $_/10");
     sleep 1;
 sleep 1;
 $progress->finish(message => "Finished!");

Sample output:

 % ./
 [] 1/10 ( 10.00%) Item 1/10
 [] 2/10 ( 20.00%) Item 2/10
 [] 10/10 (100.00%) Item 10/10
 [] 10/10 (100.00%) Finished!

Example of using in a module as well as script:

 # in lib/
 package MyApp;
 use Progress::Any;

 sub download {
     my @urls = @_;
     return unless @urls;
     my $progress = Progress::Any->get_indicator(
         task => "download", pos=>0, target=>scalar @urls);
     for my $url (@urls) {
         # download the $url ...
         $progress->update(message => "Downloaded $url");

 # in
 use MyApp;
 use Progress::Any::Output;

 MyApp::download("url1", "url2", "url3", "url4", "url5");

Sample output:

 % ./
  20% [====== Downloaded url1           ]0m00s Left

Example that demonstrates multiple indicator objects:

 use Progress::Any;
 use Progress::Any::Output;

 my $pdl = Progress::Any->get_indicator(task => 'download');
 Progress::Any::Output->set({task=>'download'}, 'TermMessage', template => '[%-8t] [%P/%2T] %m');
 my $pcp = Progress::Any->get_indicator(task => 'copy');
 Progress::Any::Output->set({task=>'copy'    }, 'TermMessage', template => '[%-8t] [%P/%2T] %m');

 $pdl->update(message => "downloading A");
 $pcp->update(message => "copying A");
 sleep 1;
 $pdl->update(message => "downloading B");
 $pcp->update(message => "copying B");

will show something like:

 [download] [1/10] downloading A
 [copy    ] [1/ ?] copying A
 [download] [2/10] downloading B
 [copy    ] [2/ ?] copying B

Example of using with Perinci::CmdLine

If you use Perinci::CmdLine, you can mark your function as expecting a Progress::Any object and it will be supplied to you in a special argument -progress:

 use File::chdir;
 use Perinci::CmdLine;
 $SPEC{check_dir} = {
     v => 1.1,
     args => {
         dir => {summary=>"Path to check", schema=>"str*", req=>1, pos=>0},
     features => {progress=>1},
 sub check_dir {
     my %args = @_;
     my $progress = $args{-progress};
     my $dir = $args{dir};
     (-d $dir) or return [412, "No such dir: $dir"];
     local $CWD = $dir;
     opendir my($dh), $dir;
     my @ent = readdir($dh);
     $progress->target(scalar @ent);
     for (@ent) {
         # do the check ...
         $progress->update(message => $_);
         sleep 1;
 Perinci::CmdLine->new(url => '/main/check_dir')->run;


Progress::Any is an interface for applications that want to display progress to users. It decouples progress updating and output, rather similar to how Log::Any decouples log producers and consumers (output). The API is also rather similar to Log::Any, except Adapter is called Output and category is called task.

Progress::Any records position/target and calculates elapsed time, estimated remaining time, and percentage of completion. One or more output modules (Progress::Any::Output::*) display this information.

In your modules, you typically only need to use Progress::Any, get one or more indicators, set target and update it during work. In your application, you use Progress::Any::Output and set/add one or more outputs to display the progress (you'll need to install one of the output modules as they are not included in this minimal distribution). By setting output only in the application and not in modules, you separate the formatting/display concern from the logic.



API might still change, will be stabilized in 1.0.

Using TermProgressBarColor output

Using DesktopNotify output

The list of features:

  • multiple progress indicators

    You can use different indicator for each task/subtask.

  • customizable output

    Output is handled by one of Progress::Any::Output::* modules. Currently available outputs: Null (no output), TermMessage (display as simple message on terminal), TermProgressBarColor (display as color progress bar on terminal), LogAny (log using Log::Any), Callback (call a subroutine). Other possible output ideas: IM/Twitter/SMS, GUI, web/AJAX, remote/RPC (over Riap for example, so that Perinci::CmdLine-based command-line clients can display progress update from remote functions).

  • multiple outputs

    One or more outputs can be used to display one or more indicators.

  • hierarchical progress

    A task can be divided into subtasks. If a subtask is updated, its parent task (and its parent, and so on) are also updated proportionally.

  • message

    Aside from setting a number/percentage, allow including a message when updating indicator.

  • undefined target

    Target can be undefined, so a bar output might not show any bar (or show them, but without percentage indicator), but can still show messages.

  • retargetting

    Target can be changed in the middle of things.


$progress => OBJ

The root indicator. Equivalent to:

 Progress::Any->get_indicator(task => '')


Below are the attributes of an indicator/task:


String. Default: from caller's package, or main.

Task name. If not specified will be set to caller's package (:: will be replaced with .), e.g. if you are calling this method from Foo::Bar::baz(), then task will be set to Foo.Bar. If caller is code inside eval, main will be used instead.


String. Default: task name.

Specify task title. Task title is a longer description for a task and can contain spaces and other characters. It is displayed in some outputs, as well as using %t in fill_template(). For example, for a task called copy, its title might be Copying files to remote server.


Non-negative number. Default: 0.

The total number of items to finish. Can be set to undef to mean that we don't know (yet) how many items there are to finish (in which case, we cannot estimate percent of completion and remaining time).


Non-negative number. Default: 0.

The number of items that are already done. It cannot be larger than target, if target is defined. If target is set to a value smaller than pos or pos is set to a value larger than target, pos will be changed to be target.


String. Default: stopped.

State of task/indicator. Either: stopped, started, or finished. Initially it will be set to stopped, which means elapsed time won't be running and will stay at 0. update() will set the state to started to get elapsed time to run. At the end of task, you can call finish() (or alternatively set state to finished) to stop the elapsed time again.

The difference between stopped and finished is: when target and pos are both at 0, percent completed is assumed to be 0% when state is stopped, but 100% when state is finished.




 Progress::Any->get_indicator(%args) => obj

Get a progress indicator for a certain task. %args contain attribute values, at least task must be specified.

Note that this module maintains a list of indicator singleton objects for each task (in %indicators package variable), so subsequent get_indicator() for the same task will return the same object.




Update indicator. Will also, usually, update associated output(s) if necessary.


  • pos => NUM

    Set the new position. If unspecified, defaults to current position + 1. If pos is larger than target, outputs will generally still show 100%. Note that fractions are allowed.

  • message => str|code

    Set a message to be displayed when updating indicator.

    Aside from a string, you can also pass a coderef here. It can be used to delay costly calculation. The message will only be calculated when actually sent to output.

  • priority => str ("normal"|"low"|"high", default: "normal")

    Set importance level of this update. Default is normal. Output can choose to ignore updates lower than a certain level.

  • state => STR

    Can be set to finished to finish a task.

  • force_update => BOOL

    Default false. Some outputs choose only to update themselves after a certain amount of time or number of updates have passed; this forces their update.




Equivalent to:

     ( pos => $progress->target ) x !!defined($progress->target),
     state => 'finished',




Equivalent to:

     pos => 0,
     state => 'started',




Set state to started.




Set state to stopped.



 $progress->elapsed() => float

Get elapsed time. Just like a stop-watch, when state is started elapsed time will run and when state is stopped, it will freeze.



 $progress->remaining() => undef|float

Give estimated remaining time until task is finished, which will depend on how fast the update() is called, i.e. how fast pos is approaching target. Will be undef if target is undef.



 $progress->total_remaining() => undef|FLOAT

Give estimated remaining time added by all its subtasks' remaining. Return undef if any one of those time is undef.



 $progress->total_pos() => float

Total of indicator's pos and all of its subtasks'.



 $progress->total_target() => undef|float

Total of indicator's target and all of its subtasks'. Return undef if any one of those is undef.



 $progress->percent_complete() => undef|float

Give percentage of completion, calculated using total_pos / total_target * 100. Undef if total_target is undef.



 $progress->fill_template($template) => str

Fill template with values, like in sprintf(). Usually used by output modules. Available templates:

  • %(width)n

    Task name (the value of the task attribute). width is optional, an integer, like in sprintf(), can be negative to mean left-justify instead of right.

  • %(width)t

    Task title (the value of the title attribute).

  • %(width)e

    Elapsed time (the result from the elapsed() method). Currently using Time::Duration concise format, e.g. 10s, 1m40s, 16m40s, 1d4h, and so on. Format might be configurable and localizable in the future. Default width is -8. Examples:

  • %(width)r

    Estimated remaining time (the result of the total_remaining() method). Currently using Time::Duration concise format, e.g. 10s, 1m40s, 16m40s, 1d4h, and so on. Will show ? if unknown. Format might be configurable and localizable in the future. Default width is -8. Examples:

  • %(width)R

    Estimated remaining time or elapsed time, if estimated remaining time is not calculatable (e.g. when target is undefined). Format might be configurable and localizable in the future. Default width is -(8+1+7). Examples:

     30s left
     1m40s elapsed
  • %(width).(prec)p

    Percentage of completion (the result of the percent_complete() method). width and precision are optional, like %f in Perl's sprintf(), default is %3.0p. If percentage is unknown (due to target being undef), will show ?.

  • %(width)P

    Current position (the result of the total_pos() method).

  • %(width)T

    Target (the result of the total_target() method). If undefined, will show ?.

  • %m

    Message (the update() parameter). If message is unspecified, will show empty string.

  • %%

    A literal % sign.




Boolean. Default 1. Can be set to 0 to supress display progress output.


Please visit the project's homepage at


Source repository is at


Progress::Any::Examples distribution contains example scripts.

Other progress modules on CPAN: Term::ProgressBar, Term::ProgressBar::Simple, Time::Progress, among others.

Output modules: Progress::Any::Output::*. You need to install at least one module to actually see progress being outputted/displayed somewhere, e.g. <> to Progress::Any::Output::TermProgressBarColor.

See examples on how Progress::Any is used by other modules: Perinci::CmdLine (supplying progress object to functions), Git::Bunch (using progress object).


perlancar <>


Steven Haryanto <>


To contribute, you can send patches by email/via RT, or send pull requests on GitHub.

Most of the time, you don't need to build the distribution yourself. You can simply modify the code, then test via:

 % prove -l

If you want to build the distribution (e.g. to try to install it locally on your system), you can install Dist::Zilla, Dist::Zilla::PluginBundle::Author::PERLANCAR, Pod::Weaver::PluginBundle::Author::PERLANCAR, and sometimes one or two other Dist::Zilla- and/or Pod::Weaver plugins. Any additional steps required beyond that are considered a bug and can be reported to me.


This software is copyright (c) 2022, 2020, 2018, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 by perlancar <>.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.


Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.