RDF::Trine::Serializer::NTriples::Canonical - Canonical representation of an RDF model


This document describes RDF::Trine::Serializer::NTriples::Canonical version 1.019


  use RDF::Trine::Serializer::NTriples::Canonical;
  my $serializer = RDF::Trine::Serializer::NTriples->new( onfail=>'truncate' );
  $serializer->serialize_model_to_file(FH, $model);


This module produces a canonical string representation of an RDF graph. If the graph contains blank nodes, sometimes there is no canonical representation that can be produced. The 'onfail' option allows you to decide what is done in those circumstances:

  • truncate - drop problematic triples and only serialize a subgraph.

  • append - append problematic triples to the end of graph. The result will be non-canonical. This is the default behaviour.

  • space - As with 'append', but leave a blank line separating the canonical and non-canonical portions of the graph.

  • die - cause a fatal error.

Other than the 'onfail' option, this package has exactly the same interface as RDF::Trine::Serializer::NTriples, providing serialize_model_to_file and serialize_model_to_string methods.

This package will be considerably slower than the non-canonicalising serializer though, so should only be used for small to medium-sized graphs, and only when you need canonicalisation (e.g. for side-by-side comparison of two graphs to check they're isomorphic; or creating a canonical representation for digital signing).


Beyond the methods documented below, this class inherits methods from the RDF::Trine::Serializer::NTriples class.

new ( [ onfail => $rule ] )

Returns a new Canonical N-Triples serializer object. If specified, the value of the 'onfail' argument dictates the handling of blank nodes with no canonical representation. The allowable rule values are 'truncate', 'append', 'space', and 'die', and their respective behaviour is described in "DESCRIPTION" above.

serialize_model_to_file ( $fh, $model )

Serializes the $model to canonical NTriples, printing the results to the supplied filehandle <$fh>.

serialize_model_to_string ( $model )

Serializes the $model to canonical NTriples, returning the result as a string.


Please report any bugs or feature requests to through the GitHub web interface at


Signing RDF Graphs, Jeremey J Carroll, Digital Media Systems Laboratory, HB Laboratories Bristol. HPL-2003-142, 23 July 2003.

RDF::Trine, RDF::Trine::Serializer::NTriples.


Toby Inkster, <>


Copyright (c) 2010 Toby Inkster

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself, either Perl version 5.8.1 or, at your option, any later version of Perl 5 you may have available.