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NAME

Runtime::Debugger - Easy to use REPL with existing lexical support and DWIM tab completion.

(emphasis on "existing" since I have not yet found this support in other modules).

SYNOPSIS

In a script:

    use Runtime::Debugger;
    repl;

On the commandline:

    perl -MRuntime::Debugger -E 'repl'

Same, but with some variables to play with:

    perl -MRuntime::Debugger -E 'my $str1 = "Func"; our $str2 = "Func2"; my @arr1 = "arr-1"; our @arr2 = "arr-2"; my %hash1 = qw(hash 1); our %hash2 = qw(hash 2); my $coderef = sub { "code-ref: @_" }; {package My; sub Func{"My-Func"} sub Func2{"My-Func2"}} my $obj = bless {}, "My"; repl; say $@'

From another script/function:

    my $var_to_find = 111;

    sub other {
        use Runtime::Debugger;
        repl( levels_up => 1 );
    }

DESCRIPTION

"What? Another debugger? What about ... ?"

Other Modules

perl5db.pl

The standard perl debugger (perl5db.pl) is a powerful tool.

Using per5db.pl, one would normally be able to do this:

    # Insert a breakpoint in your code:
    $DB::single = 1;

    # Then run the perl debugger to navigate there quickly:
    PERLDBOPT='Nonstop' perl -d my_script

If that works for you, then dont' bother with this module! (joke. still try it.)

Devel::REPL

This is a great and extendable module!

Unfortunately, I did not find a way to get the lexical variables in a scope. (maybe I missed a plugin?!)

Example:

 perl -MDevel::REPL -E '
     my  $my_var  = 111;                # I want to access this
     our $our_var = 222;                # and this.
     my $repl = Devel::REPL->new;
     $repl->load_plugin($_) for qw(
         History
         LexEnv
         DDS
         Colors
         Completion
         CompletionDriver::INC
         CompletionDriver::LexEnv
         CompletionDriver::Keywords
         CompletionDriver::Methods
     );
     $repl->run;
 '

Sample Output:

 $ print $my_var
 Compile error: Global symbol "$my_var" requires explicit package name ...

 $ print $our_var
 Compile error: Global symbol "$our_var" requires explicit package name ...

Reply

This module also looked nice, but same issue.

Example:

    perl -MReply -E '
        my $var=111;
        Reply->new->run;
    '

Sample Output:

 > print $var
 1
 > my $var2 = 222
 222
 > print $var2
 1

This Module

While debugging some long-running, perl, Selenium test files, I basically got bored during the long waits, and created a simple Read Evaluate Print Loop (REPL) to avoid the annoyong waits between test tries.

Originally I would have a hot key command to drop in a snippet of code like this into my test code to essentially insert a breakpoint/pause.

One can then examine what's going on in that area of code.

Originally the repl code snippet was something as simple as this:

 while(1){
   my $in = <STDIN>;
   chomp $in;
   last if $in eq 'q';
   eval $in;
 }

With that small snippet I could pause in a long running test (which I didn't write) and try out commands to help me to understand what needs to be updated in the test (like a ->click into a field before text could be entered).

And I was quite satisfied.

From there, this module increased in features such as using Term::ReadLine for readline support,tab completion, and history (up arrow).

Attempts

This module has changed in its approach quite a few times since it turns out to be quite tricky to perform eval_in_scope.

Source Filter

To make usage of this module as simple as possible, I tried my hand at source filters.

My idea was that by simply adding this line of code:

 use Runtime::Debugger;

That would use a source filter to add in the REPL code.

This solution was great, but source filters can only be applied at COMPILE TIME (That was new to me as well).

Unfortunately, the tests I am dealing with are read as a string then evaled.

So, source filters, despite how clean they would make my solution, would not work for my use cases.

Next idea.

Back To Eval

Then I decided to go back to using a command like:

 use Runtime::Debugger;
 eval run;

Where run would basically generates the REPL code and eval would use the current scope to apply the code.

Side note: other Debuggers I had tried before this one, do not update lexical variables in the current scope. So this, I think, is unique in this debugger.

Next pitfall

I learned later that eval run would under certain circumstances not work:

First call would print 111, while the exact same eval line would print undef afterwards.

 sub {
     my $v = 111;
     eval q(
         # my $v = $v; # Kind of a fix.
         eval 'say $v'; # 111
         eval 'say $v'; # undef
     );
 }->();

Still can eval run

Using eval run is still possible (for now).

Just be aware that it does not evaluate correctly under certain circumstances.

Solution

Simply add these lines:

    use Runtime::Debugger;
    repl;

This will basically insert a read, evaluate, print loop (REPL).

This should work for more cases (just try not to use nasty perl magic).

Goal

To reach the current solution, it was essential to go back to the main goal.

And the goal/idea is simple, be able to evaluate an expression in a specific scope/context.

Basically looking for something like:

 peek_my(SCOPE)

But instead for eval:

 eval_in_scope(SCOPE)

Given eval_in_scope(1), that would evaluate an expression, but in a scope/context one level higher.

Implementation

Scope

In order to eval a string of perl code correctly, we need to figure out at which level the variable is located.

Thats not hard to do: just look through increasing caller() levels until finding the first whose package name is not thia module's.

Peek

Given the scope level, peek_my/our is utilized to grab all the variables in that scope.

Having these variables:

 my  $var = 111;
 our $var = 222;

There can only be a single variable (glob) of a name. When multiple, the lexical one would be used.

Preprocess

Then we need to preprocess the piece of perl code that would be evaled.

At this stage variables would be replaced which their equivalent representation at found in peek_my/our.

This code:

 say $var

Might be replaced with something like this:

 say ${$PEEKS{'$var'}}

This transformation would normally be done seamlessly and hidden from the user.

Eval

Finally, eval the string.

And we pretend to have done eval_in_scope.

Future Ideas

One idea would be to create an XS function which can perform an eval in a specific scope, but without the translation magic that is currently being done.

This might appear like peek_my, but for eval. So something like this:

 eval_in_scope("STRING_TO_EVAL", SCOPE_LEVEL);

FUNCTIONS

run

DEPRECATED! (Use repl instead)

Runs the REPL.

 eval run

Sets $@ to the exit reason like 'INT' (Control-C) or 'q' (Normal exit/quit).

Note: This method is more stable than repl(), but at the same time has limits. See also

repl

Works like eval, but without the lossy bug

repl ( history_file => "$ENV{HOME}/.runtime_debugger.info", debug => $ENV{RUNTIME_DEBUGGER_DEBUG} // 0, levels_up => 0, );

Can specify the level at which to perform an eval in relation to the level of this function call:

 levels_up => 0,  # Default
 levels_up => 1,  # One scope/level above this.
                  # Useful for scripts using this.
 levels_up => -1, # One level below for internals.

_apply_peeks

Transform variables in a code string into references to the same variable as found with peek_my/our.

Try to insert the peek_my/our references (peeks) only when needed (should appear natural to the user).

Ok to transform:

 say "@a"

NOT ok to transform:

 say "%h"

Tab Completion

This module has rich, DWIM tab completion support:

 Press TAB when:

 - No input - view commands and variables.

 - After arrow ("->") - to auto append either a "{" or "[" or "(".
   (Depends on variable type)

 - After a hash) - show keys.

 - Otherwise - show variables.

_match

Wrapper to simplify completion function.

Input:

 words   => ARRAYREF, # What to look for.
 partial => STRING,   # Default: ""  - What you typed so far.
 prepend => "STRING", # Default: ""  - prepend to each possiblity.
 nospace => 0,        # Default: "0" - will not append a space after a completion.

Returns the possible matches:

help

Show help section.

History

All commands run in the debugger are saved locally and loaded next time the module is loaded.

hist

Can use hist to show a history of commands.

By default will show 20 commands:

 hist

Same thing:

 hist 20

Can show more:

 hist 50

d

Data::Dumper::Dump anything.

You can use "d" as a print command which can show a simple or complex data structure.

 d 123
 d [1, 2, 3]

dd

Devel::Peek::Dump.

You can use "dd" to see the inner contents of a structure/variable.

 dd @var
 dd [1..3]

p

Data::Printer::p

You can use "p" as a print command which can show a simple or complex data structure with colors.

Some example uses:

 p 123
 p [1, 2, 3]
 p $scalar
 p \@array
 p \%hash
 p $object

uniq

Returns a unique list of elements.

List::Util in lower than v5.26 does not provide a unique function.

Internal Properties

attr

Internal use.

debug

Internal use.

levels_up

Internal use.

term

Internal use.

ENVIRONMENT

Install required library:

 sudo apt install libreadline-dev

Enable this environmental variable to show debugging information:

 RUNTIME_DEBUGGER_DEBUG=1

SEE ALSO

https://perldoc.perl.org/perldebug

Why not perl debugger?

https://metacpan.org/pod/Devel::REPL

Why not Devel::REPL?

https://metacpan.org/pod/Reply

Why not Reply?

AUTHOR

Tim Potapov, <tim.potapov[AT]gmail.com> 🐪🥷

BUGS

Control-C

Doing a Control-C may occassionally break the output in your terminal (exit with 'q' when possible).

Simply run any one of these:

 reset
 tset
 stty echo

New Variables

Currently it is not possible to create new lexicals (my) variables.

You can create new global variables by:

 - Default
   $var=123

 - Using our
   $our $var=123

 - Given the full path
   $My::var = 123

Lossy undef Variable

inside a long running (and perhaps complicated) script, a variable may become undef.

This piece of code demonstrates the problem with using c<eval run>.

 sub Func {
     my ($code) = @_;
     $code->();
 }

 Func( sub{
     my $v2 = 222;

     # This causes issues.
     use Runtime::Debugger;
     eval run;

     # Whereas, this one works.
     use Runtime::Debugger;
     repl;
 });

This issue is described here https://www.perlmonks.org/?node_id=11158351

Other

Please report any (other) bugs or feature requests to https://github.com/poti1/runtime-debugger/issues.

SUPPORT

You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

    perldoc Runtime::Debugger

You can also look for information at:

https://metacpan.org/pod/Runtime::Debugger

https://github.com/poti1/runtime-debugger

LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT

This software is Copyright (c) 2022 by Tim Potapov.

This is free software, licensed under:

  The Artistic License 2.0 (GPL Compatible)