- NAME
- SYNOPSIS
- DESCRIPTION
- BUGS AND CAVEATS
- SEE ALSO
- VERSION
- AUTHOR
- COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
- ACKNOWLEDGMENT

# NAME

Statistics::Standard_Normal - Z scores and percentiles using standard normal table

# SYNOPSIS

```
use Statistics::Standard_Normal qw/z_to_pct pct_to_z/;;
while (defined my $z = get_z_score($name)) {
say "$name's result was at the ", z_to_pct($z), ' percentile';
}
while (defined my $pct = get_percentile($name)) {
say "$name's result had a Z score of ", pct_to_z($pct);
say "Be careful of flattening at high percentiles!" if $pct > 98;
}
```

# DESCRIPTION

*Statistics::Standard_Normal* provides convenience functions to convert between Z scores and percentile scores using values taken from a standard normal distribution (that is, a normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1). Percentile scores are often used for informal reporting of results, since they make intuitive sense to many readers, while Z scores are less familiar, but a better behaved for values far from the mean.

The intent of this package is to be lightweight -- it has no prerequisites outside the Perl core, no compiler requirement, and a small footprint -- while providing values accurate enough for most uses.

## FUNCTIONS

Two conversion functions are provided:

**z_to_pct**(*$z*)-
Returns the percentile corresponding to the Z-score

*$z*. This is the percentage of the area under the standard normal curve located to the left of a vertical line at`mean`

+*$z*.A closed-form solution to this problem does not exist, so "z_to_pct" uses a rapid estimation that is generally accurate to

`0.1%`

over the range of -3.719 <*$z*< 3.719. Values outside this range return`0.01%`

or`99.99%`

, depending on the sign of*$z*. **pct_to_z**(*$pctile*)-
Returns the Z-score corresponding to

*$pctile*. This uses an approximation similar to the one used by "z_to_pct"; the result is generally accurate to`0.005`

. Values of*$pctile*<`0.01`

or >`99.9`

return`-3.719`

and`3.719`

, respectively.

## EXPORT

Both "pct_to_z" and "z_to_pct" are available for importation, but neither are exported by default.

# BUGS AND CAVEATS

Conversion to Z scores of percentiles very close to 0 or 100 becomes increasingly inaccurate, as smaller and smaller changes in percentile are associated with a given change in Z score.

# SEE ALSO

For intensive usage, a compiled library may provide better performance (cf. "ndtr" in Math::Cephes or Math::CDF for Perl bindings to some options).

If you have a set of observations and want to perform statistical tests, there are a host of modules in the `Statistics::`

namespace; ones that may help you derive Z scores include Statistics::Zscore and Statistics::Zed.

# VERSION

version 1.00

# AUTHOR

Charles Bailey <cbail@cpan.org>

# COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright 2012-2014 Charles Bailey.

This software may be used under the terms of the Artistic License or the GNU General Public License, as the user prefers.

# ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The code incorporated into this package was originally written with United States federal funding as part of research work done by the author at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.