Mark Lawrence

NAME

Sys::Cmd - run a system command or spawn a system processes

VERSION

0.81.6 (2014-03-24) Development release

SYNOPSIS

    use Sys::Cmd qw/run spawn/;

    # Get command output, raise exception on failure:
    $output = run(@cmd);

    # Feed command some input, get output as lines,
    # raise exception on failure:
    @output = run(@cmd, { input => 'feedme' });

    # Spawn and interact with a process somewhere else:
    $proc = spawn( @cmd, { dir => '/' , encoding => 'iso-8859-3'} );

    while (my $line = $proc->stdout->getline) {
        $proc->stdin->print("thanks");
    }

    my @errors = $proc->stderr->getlines;

    $proc->close();       # Finished talking
    $proc->wait_child();  # Cleanup

    # read exit information
    $proc->exit();      # exit status
    $proc->signal();    # signal
    $proc->core();      # core dumped? (boolean)

DESCRIPTION

Sys::Cmd lets you run system commands and capture their output, or spawn and interact with a system process through its STDIN, STDOUT, and STDERR file handles. The following functions are exported on demand by this module:

run( @cmd, [\%opt] ) => $output | @output

Execute @cmd and return what the command sent to its STDOUT, raising an exception in the event of error. In array context returns a list instead of a plain string.

The first element of @cmd will be looked up using File::Which if it is not a CODE reference, or cannot be found as a relative file name. The command input and environment can be modified with an optional hashref containing the following key/values:

dir

The working directory the command will be run in.

encoding

An string value identifying the encoding of the input/output file-handles. Defaults to 'utf8'.

env

A hashref containing key/values to be added to the current environment at run-time. If a key has an undefined value then the key is removed from the environment altogether.

input

A string which is fed to the command via its standard input, which is then closed.

runx( @cmd, [\%opt] ) => $outerrput | @outerrput

The same as the run function but with the command's STDERR output appended to the STDOUT output.

spawn( @cmd, [\%opt] ) => Sys::Cmd

Return a Sys::Cmd object (documented below) representing the process running @cmd, with attributes set according to the optional \%opt hashref. The first element of the @cmd array is looked up using File::Which if it is not a CODE reference or cannot be found in the file-system as a relative file name.

Sys::Cmd objects can of course be created using the standard new constructor if you prefer that to the spawn function:

    $proc = Sys::Cmd->new(
        cmd => \@cmd,
        dir => '/',
        env => { SOME => 'VALUE' },
        enc => 'iso-8859-3',
        input => 'feedme',
        on_exit => sub {
            my $proc = shift;
            print $proc->pid .' exited with '. $proc->exit;
        },
    );

Note that Sys::Cmd objects created this way will not lookup the command using File::Which the way the run, runx and spawn functions do.

Sys::Cmd uses Log::Any debug calls for logging purposes.

CONSTRUCTOR

new(%args) => Sys::Cmd

Spawns a process based on %args. %args must contain at least a cmd value, and optionally encoding, env, dir and input values as defined as attributes below.

If an on_exit subref argument is provided a SIGCHLD handler will be installed (process wide!) which is called asynchronously (with the Sys::Cmd object as first argument) when the child exits.

ATTRIBUTES

All attributes are read-only.

cmd

An array ref containing the command or CODE reference and its arguments.

dir

The working directory the command will be run in.

encoding

An string value identifying the encoding of the input/output file-handles. Defaults to 'utf8'.

env

A hashref containing key/values to be added to the current environment at run-time. If a key has an undefined value then the key is removed from the environment altogether.

input

A string which is fed to the command via its standard input, which is then closed. This is a shortcut for printing to, and closing the command's stdin file-handle. An empty string will close the command's standard input without writing to it. On some systems, some commands may close standard input on startup, which will cause a SIGPIPE when trying to write to it. This will raise an exception.

pid

The command's process ID.

stdin

The command's STDIN file handle, based on IO::Handle so you can call print() etc methods on it. Autoflush is automatically enabled on this handle.

stdout

The command's STDOUT file handle, based on IO::Handle so you can call getline() etc methods on it.

stderr

The command's STDERR file handle, based on IO::Handle so you can call getline() etc methods on it.

exit

The command's exit value, shifted by 8 (see "perldoc -f system"). Set either when a SIGCHLD is received or after a call to wait_child().

signal

The signal number (if any) that terminated the command, bitwise-added with 127 (see "perldoc -f system"). Set either when a SIGCHLD is received or after a call to wait_child().

core

A boolean indicating the process core was dumped. Set either when a SIGCHLD is received or after a call to wait_child().

METHODS

cmdline => @list | $str

In array context returns a list of the command and its arguments. In scalar context returns a string of the command and its arguments joined together by spaces.

close()

Close all pipes to the child process. This method is automatically called when the Sys::Cmd object is destroyed. Annoyingly, this means that in the following example $fh will be closed when you tried to use it:

    my $fh = Sys::Cmd->new( %args )->stdout;

So you have to keep track of the Sys::Cmd object manually.

wait_child()

Wait for the child to exit and collect the exit status. This method is resposible for setting the exit, signal and core attributes.

SEE ALSO

Sys::Cmd::Template

ALTERNATIVES

AnyEvent::Run, AnyEvent::Util, Argv, Capture::Tiny, Child, Forks::Super, IO::Pipe, IPC::Capture, IPC::Cmd, IPC::Command::Multiplex, IPC::Exe, IPC::Open3, IPC::Open3::Simple, IPC::Run, IPC::Run3, IPC::RunSession::Simple, IPC::ShellCmd, IPC::System::Simple, POE::Pipe::TwoWay, Proc::Background, Proc::Fork, Proc::Spawn, Spawn::Safe, System::Command

SUPPORT

This distribution is managed via github:

    https://github.com/mlawren/sys-cmd/tree/devel

This distribution follows the semantic versioning model:

    http://semver.org/

Code is tidied up on Git commit using githook-perltidy:

    http://github.com/mlawren/githook-perltidy

AUTHOR

Mark Lawrence <nomad@null.net>, based heavily on Git::Repository::Command by Philippe Bruhat (BooK).

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright 2011-2014 Mark Lawrence <nomad@null.net>

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.




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