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Template::Mustache - Drawing Mustaches on Perl for fun and profit


version 1.4.0


    use Template::Mustache;

    # one-shot rendering

    print Template::Mustache->render(
        "Hello {{planet}}",

    # compile and re-use template

    my $mustache = Template::Mustache->new(
        template => "Hello {{planet}}",

    print $mustache->render( { planet => "World!" } );


Template::Mustache is an implementation of the fabulous Mustache templating language for Perl.

This version of Template::Mustache conforms to v1.1.3 of the Mustache specs.

Templates can be compiled and rendered on the spot via the use of render called as a class method.

    print Template::Mustache->render(
        "Hello {{planet}}",

If you are considering re-using the same template many times, it's recommended to create a Template::Mustache object instead, which will compile the template only once, and allow to render it with different contexts.

    my $mustache = Template::Mustache->new(
        template => "Hello {{planet}}",

    print $mustache->render( { planet => "World!" } );


new( %arguments )

    my $mustache = Template::Mustache->new(
        template   => "Hello {{planet}}",
        delimiters => [ qw/ ! ! / ],



template => $string

A Mustache template.

template_path => $path

Instead of template, a template_path can be provided to read the template and the partials from the fielsystem instead. See the method template_path to see how this works.

partials_path => $path

An optional filesystem path from which to gather partial templates.

delimiters => [ $opening_tag, $closing_tag ]

An optional arrayref holding the pair of delimiters used by the template. Defaults to {{ }}.

context => $context

Context to use when rendering if not provided as a parameter to render. Defaults to the object itself.

partials => $partials

An optional hashref of partials to assign to the object. See the method partials for more details on its format.

By default, if partials_path (or template_path is defined, the template will try to resolve the partials as filenames with the file extension .mustache relative to that path.

    my $mustache = Template::Mustache->new(
        partials => './root',
        template => '{{ > ./my/partial }}',  # => file ./root/my/partial.mustache

render( $context )

    print $mustache->render( $context );

Returns the rendered template, given the optionally provided context. Uses the object's context attribute if not provided.


as a hashref

    Template::Mustache->render( 'Hello {{ thing }}', { thing => 'World!' } );

If the value is a coderef, it will be invoked to generate the value to be inserted in the template.

        'it is {{ time }}',
        { time => sub { scalar localtime } }

If you want the value returned by the coderef to be interpolated as a Mustache template, a helper function is passed as the last argument to the coderef.

        'hello {{ place }}',
            place => sub { pop->('{{ planet }}') },
            planet => 'World',

The two previous interpolations work both for {{variable}} definitions, but also for {{#section}}s.

    print Template::Mustache->render(
        'I am {{#obfuscated}}resu{{/obfuscated}}',
            obfuscated   => sub { pop->('{{'.reverse(shift).'}}') },
            user         => '({{logged_in_as}})',
            logged_in_as => 'Sam',
    );  # => 'I am (Sam)'

as an arrayref

    Template::Mustache->render( 'Hello {{ 1 }}', [ 'Earth', 'World!' ] );
    # => 'Hello World!

as an object

    my $object = Something->new( ... );

    Template::Mustache->render( 'Hello {{ thing }}', $object );  # thing resolves to $object->thing

as a scalar

    Template::Mustache->render( 'Hello {{ . }}', 'World!' );

no context

If no context is provided, it will default to the mustache object itself. Which allows for definining templates as subclasses of Template::Mustache.

    package My::Template;
    use Moo;
    extends 'Template::Mustache';

    sub template  { 'Hello {{ planet }}!' }

    sub planet { 'World' }

    # later on
    My::Template->new->render; # => Hello World!

multi-level variable

If the variable to be rendered is multi-level (e.g.,, it is resolved recursively on the context.

    # $foo->bar returns `{ baz => [ 'quux' ] }`

    Template::Mustache->render( '{{ bar.baz.0 }}', $foo );  # => 'quux'

render( $template, $context, $partials )

    print Template::Mustache->render( $template, $context, $partials );

    # equivalent to
        template => $template, partials => $partials
    )->render( $context );

If invoked as a class method, render takes in the mustache template, and an optional context and set of partials.

To pass in partials without a context, set the context to undef.

    print Template::Mustache->render( $template, undef, $partials );

template( $template )

Accessor to the template attribute.

template_path( $path )

Accessor to the template_path attribute. If this attribute is set, the template will be set to the content of the provided file (if $path is a directory, the file is assumed to be the Mustache.mustache file local to that directory).

partials_path( $path )

Accessor the partials_path attribute. If partials were not given as part of the object construction, when encountered partials will be attempted to be read from that directory. The filename for a partial is its name with .mustache appended to it.

If template_path is defined, partials_path defaults to it.

context( $context )

Accessor to the context attribute.

delimiters( [ $opening_tag, $closing_tag ] )

Accessor to the delimiters attribute.


    my $tree = $mustache->parsed;

Returns the Template::Mustache::Token::Template object representing the parsed template.


Returns the instance of Template::Mustache::Parser used by the object.

partials( { partial_name => $partial, ... } )

    my $mustache = Template::Mustache->new(
        template => "{{> this }}",
        partials => { this => 'partials rock!' },

    print $mustache->render; # => partials rock!

Add partial templates to the object.

Partial values can be strings holding Mustache templates;

A coderef can also be set instead of a hashref. In that case, partial templates will be generated by invoking that sub with the name of the partial as its argument.

    my $mustache = Template::Mustache->new(
        template => "{{> this }} and {{> that }}",
        partials => sub { "a little bit of " . shift }



    print $Template::Mustache::GRAMMAR;

The Parse::RecDescent grammar used to parse Mustache templates.

Interpolation of numbers and HTML entities

By default and as ddictated by its specs, Mustache format numbers into their canonical form.

    print Template::Mustache->render("{{.}}", "00.120" ); # prints '0.12'

If you rather want a value to be printed as-is, pass it as a reference.

    print Template::Mustache->render("{{.}}", \"00.120" ); # prints '00.120'

Ditto for HTML entities:

    my $value = "<stuff>";

    Template::Mustache->render("{{.}}", $value );  # "&lt;stuff&gt;"

    Template::Mustache->render("{{.}}", \$value ); # "<stuff>"


The main, pan-language site for Mustache.

Specs of the Mustache DSL.


Handlebars is another templating language heavily inspired and very similar to Mustache. Text::Handlebars is an implementation of it using Text::Xslate.


Another module implementing Mustache templates.


  • Pieter van de Bruggen <>

  • Yanick Champoux <>

  • Ricardo Signes <>


This software is copyright (c) 2022, 2021, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2011 by Pieter van de Bruggen.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.