Text::CleanFragment - clean up text to use as URL fragment or filename


  my $title = "Do p\x{00FC}t <this> into/URL's?";
  my $id = 42;
  my $url = join "/",
              clean_fragment( $title );
  # 42/Do_put_this_into_URLs


This module downgrades strings of text to match


or, to be more exact


This makes the return values safe to be used as URL fragments or as file names on many file systems where whitespace and characters outside of the Latin alphabet are undesired or problematic.


clean_fragment( @fragments )

    my $url_title = join("_", clean_fragment("Ümloud vs. ß",'by',"Grégory"));
    # Umloud_vs._ss_by_Gregory

Returns a cleaned up list of elements. The input elements are expected to be encoded as Unicode strings. Decode them using Encode if you read the fragments as file names from the filesystem.

The operations performed are:

  • Use Text::Unidecode to downgrade the text from Unicode to 7-bit ASCII.

  • Eliminate single and double quotes, apostrophes.

  • Replace all non-letters, non-digits by underscores, including whitespace and control characters.

  • Squash dashes to a single dash

  • Squash _-_ and _-_(-_)+ to -

  • Eliminate leading underscores

  • Eliminate trailing underscores

  • Eliminate underscores before - or .

In scalar context, returns the first element of the cleaned up list.


The public repository of this module is


The public support forum of this module is


Please report bugs in this module via the RT CPAN bug queue at or via mail to


Max Maischein


Copyright 2012-2022 by Max Maischein


This module is released under the same terms as Perl itself.