Text::WikiCreole - Convert Wiki Creole 1.0 markup to XHTML


Version 0.07


Text::WikiCreole implements the Wiki Creole markup language, version 1.0, as described at It reads Creole 1.0 markup and returns XHTML.


 use Text::WikiCreole;
 creole_plugin \&myplugin; # register custom plugin parser

 my $html = creole_parse($creole_text);



    Self-explanatory.  Takes a Creole markup string argument and 
    returns HTML. 


    Creole 1.0 supports two plugin syntaxes: << plugin content >> and
                                            <<< plugin content >>>

    Write a function that receives the text between the <<>> 
    delimiters as $_[0] (and not including the delimiters) and 
    returns the text to be displayed.  For example, here is a 
    simple plugin that converts plugin text to uppercase:

    sub uppercase_plugin {
      $_[0] =~ s/([a-z])/\u$1/gs;
      return $_[0];
    creole_plugin \&uppercase_plugin;

    If you do not register a plugin function, plugin markup will be left
    as is, including the surrounding << >>.
    You may wish to customize [[ links ]], such as to prefix a hostname,
    port, etc.

    Write a function, similar to the plugin function, which receives the
    URL part of the link (with leading and trailing whitespace stripped) 
    as $_[0] and returns the customized link.  For example, to prepend 
    "http://my.domain/" to pagename:

    sub mylink {
      return "http://my.domain/$_[0]";
    creole_link \&mylink;
    If you want complete control over links, rather than just modifying
    the URL, register your link markup function with creole_link() as above
    and then call creole_customlinks().  Now your function will receive the 
    entire link markup chunk, such as [[ some_wiki_page | page description ]] 
    and must return HTML.
    This has no effect on "bare" link markup, such as
    Same purpose as creole_link, but for "bare" link markup.

    sub mybarelink {
      return "$_[0].html";
    creole_barelink \&mybarelink;
    Same purpose as creole_customlinks, but for "bare" link markup.


    Same purpose as creole_link, but for image URLs.

    sub myimg {
      return "http://my.comain/$_[0]";
    creole_img \&myimg;


    Similar to creole_customlinks, but for images.


    You may wish to customize the opening and/or closing tags
    for the various bits of Creole markup.  For example, to
    assign a CSS class to list items:
    creole_tag("li", "open", "<li class=myclass>");

    Or to see all current tags:

    print creole_tag();

    The tags that may be of interest are:

    br          dd          dl
    dt          em          h1
    h2          h3          h4
    h5          h6          hr 
    ilink       img         inowiki
    ip          li          link
    mono        nowiki      ol
    p           strong      sub
    sup         table       td
    th          tr          u

    Those should be self-explanatory, except for inowiki (inline nowiki),
    ilink (bare links, e.g., and ip (indented paragraph).


    Here is a summary of the official Creole 1.0 markup 
    elements.  See for the full

    = heading 1       ->    <h1>heading 1</h1>
    == heading 2      ->    <h2>heading 2</h2>
    ====== heading 6  ->    <h6>heading 6</h6>
    Various inline markup:
    ** bold **        ->    <strong> bold </strong>
    // italics //     ->    <em> italics </em>
    **// both //**    ->    <strong><em> both </em></strong>
    [[ link ]]        ->    <a href="link">link</a>
    [[ link | text ]] ->    <a href="link">text</a>   ->    <a href=""></a>
    line \\ break     ->    line <br /> break
    {{img.jpg|alt}}   ->    <img src="img.jpg" alt="alt">

    * unordered list        <ul><li>unordered list</li>
    * second item               <li>second item</li>
    ## nested ordered  ->       <ol><li>nested ordered</li>
    *** uber-nested                 <ul><li>uber-nested</li></ul>
    * back to level 1           </ol><li>back to level 1</li></ul>

    |= h1 |= h2       ->    <table><tr><th>h1</th><th>h2</th></tr>
    |  c1 |  c2             <tr><td>c1</td><td>c2</td></tr></table>

    Nowiki (Preformatted):
    {{{                     <pre>
      ** not bold **          ** not bold **
      escaped HTML:   ->      escaped HTML:
      <i> test </i>           &lt;i&gt; test &lt;/i&gt;
    }}}                     <pre>

    {{{ inline\\also }}} -> <tt>inline\\also</tt>

    Escape Character:
    ~** not bold **    ->    ** not bold **
    tilde: ~~          ->    tilde: ~

    Paragraphs are separated by other blocks and blank lines.  
    Inline markup can usually be combined, overlapped, etc.  List
    items and plugin text can span lines.


    In addition to OFFICIAL MARKUP, Text::WikiCreole also supports
    the following markup:

    << plugin >>        ->    whatever you want (see creole_plugin above)
    <<< plugin >>>      ->    whatever you want (see creole_plugin above)
        Triple-bracket syntax has priority, in order to allow you to embed
        double-brackets in plugins, such as to embed Perl code.

    ## monospace ##     ->    <tt> monospace </tt>
    ^^ superscript ^^   ->    <sup> superscript </sup>
    ,, subscript ,,     ->    <sub> subscript </sub>
    __ underline __     ->    <u> underline </u>
    (TM)                ->    &trade;
    (R)                 ->    &reg;
    (C)                 ->    &copy;
    ...                 ->    &hellip;
    --                  ->    &ndash;

    Indented Paragraphs:
    :this               ->    <div style="margin-left:2em"><p>this
    is indented               is indented</p>
    :: more indented          <div style="margin-left:2em"><p> more

    Definition Lists:
    ; Title             ->    <dl><dt>Title</dt>
    : item 1 : item 2         <dd>item 1</dd><dd>item 2</dd>
    ; Title 2 : item2a        <dt>Title 2</dt><dd>item 2a</dd></dl>


Jason Burnett, <jason at>


Please report any bugs or feature requests to bug-text-wikicreole at, or through the web interface at I will be notified, and then you'll automatically be notified of progress on your bug as I make changes.


You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

    perldoc Text::WikiCreole

You can also look for information at:


The parsing algorithm is basically the same as (and inspired by) the one in Document::Parser. Document::Parser is OO and is, as such, incompatible with my brain.


Copyright 2007 Jason Burnett, all rights reserved.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.