URI::XS - fast URI framework, compatible with classic, with C++ interface


URI::XS has similar functionality as URI, but is much faster (sometimes 100x).

URI::XS conforms to RFC 3986.


    use URI::XS;
    my $u = URI::XS->new("");
    say $u->scheme;
    say $u->host;
    say $u->port;
    say $u->path;
    say $u->query_string;
    say $u->fragment;
    $u = URI::XS->new("about:blank");
    say $u->scheme;
    say $u->path;



uri($url, [$flags])

Creates URI object from string $url. Created object will be of special subclass (URI::XS::http, URI::XS::ftp, ...) if scheme is supported. Otherwise it will be of class URI::XS.

Created object is in "strict" mode, i.e. it has additional methods according to the scheme, however you cannot change it's scheme. You can still set a new url to this objects, but it must have the same scheme or error will be raisen.

Also "strict"(customized) classes has its own constructors with possibly additional arguments like this:

    my $url = URI::XS::http->new("", q => 'something', a => 10);
    say $url->query_string; # q=something&a=10&b=20
    $url->scheme('ftp'); # CROAKS, changing scheme is disallowed.

See custom classes' docs for details.

$flags is a bitmask of one or more of these:


By default, RFC doesn't allow urls to begin with authority (i.e. host,port). For example

is not interpreted as you might think. In this case, url is treated as relative and "" is a path

Enabling this flag makes URI::XS detect such urls:      no scheme, host is, path is /hello
    hello/world               no scheme, host is hello, path is world
    /hello/world              no scheme, no host, path is /hello/world

However, URI::XS never produces RFC-uncompliant urls on output, so

    say uri("", ALLOW_SUFFIX_REFERENCE);

prints "//" (scheme-relative format), making it valid



If true, URI::XS will use ';' as delimiter between query string params instead of a default '&'. Both for input and output.


Allow non-rfc urls with additional chars in query string for parsing ('"', '{', '}') like browsers or other software with user input, for example{"key":"val"}

The stringified form however will always be RFC-compliant

register_scheme($scheme, $perl_class)

Registers a new scheme and a perl class for that scheme (it must inherit from URI::XS). This only applies when creating "strict"(customized) urls via uri() function (or via custom class' constructor).

As URI::XS is a C++ framework in its base, you want also register a C++ class for that scheme in XS to be able to do something when such uris are constructed (even from XS/C code).


encode_uri_component($bytes, [$use_plus]), encodeURIComponent($bytes, [$use_plus])

Does what JavaScript's encodeURIComponent does.

    $uri = encode_uri_component("");

If $use_plus is true, then produces '+' for spaces instead of '%20'.

decode_uri_component($bytes), decodeURIComponent($bytes)

Does what JavaScript's decodeURIComponent does.

    $str = decode_uri_component("");


new($url, [$flags])

Creates URI object from string $url. Created object will be "non-strict", i.e. it will be of class "URI::XS" and won't have any scheme-specific methods, however you can change its scheme and set new urls with defferent scheme into the object.

register_scheme() makes no effect for this method.

$flags are the same as for uri() function.


url([$newurl], [$flags])

Returns url as string. If $newurl is present, sets this url in object (respecting $flags). May croak if object is in "strict" mode and $newurl's scheme differs from current. If object is "strict" and $newurl has no scheme, it's assumed to be current (instead of leaving it empty if object is non-strict). Examples:

    my $u = URI::XS->new(""); # non-strict mode
    $u->query({a => 1, b => 2});
    say $u->url; #
    $u->url("//"); # scheme-relative url
    say $u; # //
    $u = uri(""); # strict mode
    say $u; #, force object's scheme as it cannot change
    $u->url("svn://"); # croaks, scheme cannot change
    $u = URI::XS::ftp->new("//"); # strict mdoe
    say $u; #
    $u->url(""); # croaks

scheme([$new_scheme]), proto([$new_scheme]), protocol([$new_scheme])

Sets/returns uri's scheme. May croak if object is strict and new scheme differs from current.


Sets/returns user_info part of uri (ftp://<user_info>@host/...)


Sets/returns host part of uri


Sets/returns port. If no port is explicitly present in uri, returns default port for uri's scheme. If no scheme in uri, returns 0.


Returns port if it was explicitly set via port() or was present in uri. Otherwise returns 0.


Returns default port for the uri's scheme. Returns 0 if scheme is not specified/not supported.


Sets/returns path part of uri as string.


Sets/returns query string part of uri as string. String is expected/returned in decoded, but plain format, i.e. after uri encode of all params, but before encode_uri_component of the whole result string.


Sets/returns query string part of uri as string. String is expected/returned in RAW (encoded) format, i.e. after uri encode of all params and after encode_uri_component of the whole result string.

query([\%new_query | %new_query | $new_query_string])

If no params specified, returns query part of uri as hashref. Keys/values are returned unencoded. If uri has no query params, empty hash is returned.

If you change returned hash, no changes will occur in uri object. To commit these changes, set this hash again via query($hash) or use param() method.

If params are specified, sets new query from hash or hashref or string. Keys/values are accepted unencoded for hash/hashref.

If you pass query as string, the effect will be the same as calling query_string($new_query).

If you want to make query strings like 'a=1&a=2&a=3', set "a"'s value to an arrayref of values, like:

    $u = URI::XS->new("");
    $u->query(b => 10, a => [1,2,3]);
    say $u; #

Note hovewer, that multiparams are NOT returned in hashref:

    say Dumper($u->query); # {b => 10, a => 1/2/3 }

A's value may be any of 1/2/3 depending on hash order. This is done because most of the time you don't want multiparams and don't wanna be suprised by an arrayref in query if someone passes you second value for some key.

If you want to get all values of multiparam, use multiparam().

add_query(\%query | %query | $query_string)

Like query() but instead of replacing, adds passed query to existing query. If some key already exists in uri's query, it doesn't get replaced, instead it becomes a multiparam.

param($name, [$value | \@values])

Without second arg, returns the value of query param '$name'. If no such param exists, return undef. If param $name is a multiparam, returns one of its values.

With $value supplied, replaces current value(values) of $name with $value.

With \@values supplied, replaces current value(values) of $name with \@values ($name becomes multiparam).

multiparam($name, [$value | \@values])

Does the same as param() does. The only difference is when called without second arg, returns a list of param's values if param is a multiparam. Also returns empty list instead of undef if there is no such param in query.


Returns the number of query parameters in query (even for multiparams). For example:

    ""; # nparam() == 0
    ""; # nparam() == 2
    ""; # nparam() == 4


Removes param $name from query. If param is a multiparam, removes all its values.

fragment([$new_fragment]), hash([$new_fragment])

Sets/returns fragment (hash) part of uri.


Sets/returns location part of uri. Location is a "host:port" together. If no port was explicitly set, returned location will contain details port for the scheme. If no scheme defined, or scheme is unknown, returned location will contain port 0 - "host:0". Examples:

    say URI::XS->new("")->location; #
    say URI::XS->new("")->location; #
    say URI::XS->new("//")->location; #
    say URI::XS->new("")->explicit_location; #
    say URI::XS->new("")->explicit_location; #


Returns location with explicit port set if any, otherwise returns location without port (i.e. just host).

Effect is the same as

    $u->explicit_port ? $u->host.':'.$u->port : $u->host

relative(), rel()

Returns uri, relative to current scheme and location, for example:

    say uri("")->relative; # /mypath

to_string(), as_string(), '""'

Returns the whole uri as string.

to_bool(), 'bool'

Returns true if url is not empty. Note that if an uri object has only user_info or only port set, it is empty as it is not printable.


    if ($uri) {} # the same as if ($uri->to_bool())

is the same as

    if ($uri->to_string) {}

but runs faster.


Returns true if uri's scheme is secure (for example, https).


Sets uri from another uri object making them equal. May croak if current object is strict and other object has different scheme.

assign($url, [$flags])

Same as url($url, [$flags])

equals($other_uri), 'eq'

Returns true if $other_uri contains the same url (including all parts - query, fragment, etc).


Clones current uri. If current uri is in strict mode, then cloned uri will be in strict mode too.


Sets/returns path segments as list.

    $u = uri("");
    say join(", ", $u->path_segments); # abc, def, jopa
    $u->path_segments('my', 'folder');
    say $u; #


Sets/returns user part of user_info in uri.


Sets/returns password part of user_info in uri.






new($url, [\%query | %query | $query_string])

If provided, adds query params to $url after creating object.







URI::XS supports:

cloning via Storable
cloning via Data::Recursive's clone
serializing/deserializing via Storable
serializing via JSON::XS with convert_blessed flag enabled



You will not be able to change core features of URI via pure perl implementation

    package URI::myproto;
    use parent 'URI::XS';

    URI::XS::register_scheme("myproto", "MyURI::myproto");
    sub some_data_from_user_info {}

    # run-time
    my $u = uri("myproto://");
    say ref $u; # URI::myproto
    say $u->some_data_from_user_info;


Let's create our custom scheme "myproto" which like FTP uses some info from "user_info". Our protocol won't be secure and default port is for example 12345.

Firstly we need to create our own C++ class. It must inherit from panda::uri::URI::Strict

    #include <panda/uri.h>
    using panda::uri::URI;

    struct URImyproto : URI::Strict<URImyproto> {
        using URI::Strict<URImyproto>::Strict;

        string some_data_from_user_info () const {
            // parse user_info
            // return result
        void some_data_from_user_info (const string& new_data) {
            // change user_info

Register your new scheme somewhere in program's initialization:

    void init () {
        URI::register_scheme("myproto", &typeid(URImyproto), [](const URI& u) -> URI* { return new URImyproto(u); }, 12345, false);

That's it. Now use your custom scheme:

    URI* uri = URI::create("myproto://");
    URImyproto myuri = dynamic_cast<URImyproto*>(uri); // will return not-null
    cout << myuri->some_data_from_user_info();

Finally, create an XS and register a perl class

    #include <xs/uri.h>

    // TYPEMAP
    template <> struct Typemap<URImyproto*> : Typemap<panda::uri::URI*, URImyproto*> {}

    MODULE = URI::myproto                PACKAGE = URI::myproto
    URImyproto* URImyproto::new (string url = string(), int flags = 0)
    string URImyproto::some_data_from_user_info (SV* newval = NULL) {
        if (newval) {
        RETVAL = THIS->some_data_from_user_info();

    # perl package
    package URI::myproto;
    use parent 'URI::XS';
    URI::XS::register_scheme("myproto", "MyURI::myproto");




Typemap for input/output any URI objects.

panda::uri::URI::http*, panda::uri::URI::https*, panda::uri::URI::ftp*, panda::uri::URI::socks*, ... other protocols

Typemaps for input/output strict uris.


Output-only typemap for autodetecting strict uri type and setting right perl class to bless to.

    # XS
    URI* my_cool_uri_create1 (string url) {
        RETVAL = URI::create(url);
    URIx my_cool_uri_create2 (string url) {
        RETVAL = URI::create(url);
    # Perl
    say ref my_cool_uri_create1(""); # URI::XS
    say ref my_cool_uri_create2(""); # URI::XS::http


Pronin Oleg <>, Crazy Panda LTD


You may distribute this code under the same terms as Perl itself.