- SEE ALSO
Unicode::Collate::Locale - Linguistic tailoring for DUCET via Unicode::Collate
use Unicode::Collate::Locale; #construct $Collator = Unicode::Collate::Locale-> new(locale => $locale_name, %tailoring); #sort @sorted = $Collator->sort(@not_sorted); #compare $result = $Collator->cmp($a, $b); # returns 1, 0, or -1.
Note: Strings in
$b are interpreted according to Perl's Unicode support. See perlunicode, perluniintro, perlunitut, perlunifaq, utf8. Otherwise you can use
Unicode::Collate) or should decode them before.
This module provides linguistic tailoring for it taking advantage of
new method returns a collator object.
A parameter list for the constructor is a hash, which can include a special key
locale and its value (case-insensitive) standing for a Unicode base language code (two or three-letter). For example,
Unicode::Collate::Locale->new(locale => 'FR') returns a collator tailored for French.
$locale_name may be suffixed with a Unicode script code (four-letter), a Unicode region code, a Unicode language variant code. These codes are case-insensitive, and separated with
en_US for English in USA,
az_Cyrl for Azerbaijani in the Cyrillic script,
es_ES_traditional for Spanish in Spain (Traditional).
$locale_name is not available, fallback is selected in the following order:
1. language with a variant code 2. language with a script code 3. language with a region code 4. language 5. default
Tailoring tags provided by
Unicode::Collate are allowed as long as they are not used for
locale support. Esp. the
table tag is always untailorable, since it is reserved for DUCET.
entry is allowed, even if it is used for
locale support, to add or override mappings.
E.g. a collator for French, which ignores diacritics and case difference (i.e. level 1), with reversed case ordering and no normalization.
Unicode::Collate::Locale->new( level => 1, locale => 'fr', upper_before_lower => 1, normalization => undef )
Overriding a behavior already tailored by
locale is disallowed if such a tailoring is passed to
Unicode::Collate::Locale->new( locale => 'da', upper_before_lower => 0, # causes error as reserved by 'da' )
change() inherited from
Unicode::Collate allows such a tailoring that is reserved by
new(locale => 'ca')->change(backwards => undef) new(locale => 'da')->change(upper_before_lower => 0) new(locale => 'ja')->change(overrideCJK => undef)
Unicode::Collate::Locale is a subclass of
Unicode::Collate and methods other than
new are inherited from
Here is a list of additional methods:
Returns a language code accepted and used actually on collation. If linguistic tailoring is not provided for a language code you passed (intensionally for some languages, or due to the incomplete implementation), this method returns a string
'default'meaning no special tailoring.
(Since Unicode::Collate::Locale 0.87) Returns the version number (perhaps
/\d\.\d\d/) of the locale, as that of Locale/*.pl.
Note: Locale/*.pl that a collator uses should be identified by a combination of return values from
A list of tailorable locales
locale name description -------------------------------------------------------------- af Afrikaans ar Arabic as Assamese az Azerbaijani (Azeri) be Belarusian bg Bulgarian bn Bengali bs Bosnian bs_Cyrl Bosnian in Cyrillic (tailored as Serbian) ca Catalan cs Czech cy Welsh da Danish de__phonebook German (umlaut as 'ae', 'oe', 'ue') ee Ewe eo Esperanto es Spanish es__traditional Spanish ('ch' and 'll' as a grapheme) et Estonian fa Persian fi Finnish (v and w are primary equal) fi__phonebook Finnish (v and w as separate characters) fil Filipino fo Faroese fr French gu Gujarati ha Hausa haw Hawaiian hi Hindi hr Croatian hu Hungarian hy Armenian ig Igbo is Icelandic ja Japanese  kk Kazakh kl Kalaallisut kn Kannada ko Korean  kok Konkani ln Lingala lt Lithuanian lv Latvian mk Macedonian ml Malayalam mr Marathi mt Maltese nb Norwegian Bokmal nn Norwegian Nynorsk nso Northern Sotho om Oromo or Oriya pa Punjabi pl Polish ro Romanian ru Russian sa Sanskrit se Northern Sami si Sinhala si__dictionary Sinhala (U+0DA5 = U+0DA2,0DCA,0DA4) sk Slovak sl Slovenian sq Albanian sr Serbian sr_Latn Serbian in Latin (tailored as Croatian) sv Swedish (v and w are primary equal) sv__reformed Swedish (v and w as separate characters) ta Tamil te Telugu th Thai tn Tswana to Tonga tr Turkish uk Ukrainian ur Urdu vi Vietnamese wae Walser wo Wolof yo Yoruba zh Chinese zh__big5han Chinese (ideographs: big5 order) zh__gb2312han Chinese (ideographs: GB-2312 order) zh__pinyin Chinese (ideographs: pinyin order)  zh__stroke Chinese (ideographs: stroke order)  zh__zhuyin Chinese (ideographs: zhuyin order)  --------------------------------------------------------------
Locales according to the default UCA rules include chr (Cherokee), de (German), en (English), ga (Irish), id (Indonesian), it (Italian), ka (Georgian), ms (Malay), nl (Dutch), pt (Portuguese), st (Southern Sotho), sw (Swahili), xh (Xhosa), zu (Zulu).
 ja: Ideographs are sorted in JIS X 0208 order. Fullwidth and halfwidth forms are identical to their regular form. The difference between hiragana and katakana is at the 4th level, the comparison also requires
(variable => 'Non-ignorable'), and then
katakana_before_hiragana has no effect.
 ko: Plenty of ideographs are sorted by their reading. Such an ideograph is primary (level 1) equal to, and secondary (level 2) greater than, the corresponding hangul syllable.
 zh__pinyin, zh__stroke and zh__zhuyin: implemented alt='short', where a smaller number of ideographs are tailored.
Note: 'pinyin' is in latin, 'zhuyin' is in bopomofo.
Unicode::Collate::Locale requires Collate/Locale.pm, Collate/Locale/*.pm, Collate/CJK/*.pm and Collate/allkeys.txt. On building,
Unicode::Collate::Locale doesn't require any of data/*.txt, gendata/*, and mklocale. Tests for
Unicode::Collate::Locale are named t/loc_*.t.
- tailoring is not maximum
Even if a certain letter is tailored, its equivalent would not always tailored as well as it. For example, even though W is tailored, fullwidth W (
U+FF37), W with acute (
U+1E82), etc. are not tailored. The result may depend on whether source strings are normalized or not, and whether decomposed or composed. Thus
(normalization => undef)is less preferred.
The Unicode::Collate::Locale module for perl was written by SADAHIRO Tomoyuki, <SADAHIRO@cpan.org>. This module is Copyright(C) 2004-2013, SADAHIRO Tomoyuki. Japan. All rights reserved.
This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.
- Unicode Collation Algorithm - UTS #10
- The Default Unicode Collation Element Table (DUCET)
- Unicode Locale Data Markup Language (LDML) - UTS #35
- CLDR - Unicode Common Locale Data Repository