WWW::OAuth - Portable OAuth 1.0 authentication


 use WWW::OAuth;
 my $oauth = WWW::OAuth->new(
   client_id => $client_id,
   client_secret => $client_secret,
   token => $token,
   token_secret => $token_secret,
 # Just retrieve authorization header
 my $auth_header = $oauth->authorization_header($http_request, { oauth_callback => $url });
 $http_request->header(Authorization => $auth_header);
 # HTTP::Tiny
 use HTTP::Tiny;
 my $res = $oauth->authenticate(Basic => { method => 'GET', url => $url })
 # HTTP::Request
 use HTTP::Request::Common;
 use LWP::UserAgent;
 my $res = $oauth->authenticate(GET $url)->request_with(LWP::UserAgent->new);
 # Mojo::Message::Request
 use Mojo::UserAgent;
 my $tx = $ua->build_tx(get => $url);
 $tx = $oauth->authenticate($tx->req)->request_with(Mojo::UserAgent->new);


WWW::OAuth implements OAuth 1.0 request authentication according to RFC 5849 (sometimes referred to as OAuth 1.0A). It does not implement the user agent requests needed for the complete OAuth 1.0 authorization flow; it only prepares and signs requests, leaving the rest up to your application. It can authenticate requests for LWP::UserAgent, Mojo::UserAgent, HTTP::Tiny, and can be extended to operate on other types of requests.

Some user agents can be configured to automatically authenticate each request with a WWW::OAuth object.

 # LWP::UserAgent
 my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new;
 $ua->add_handler(request_prepare => sub { $oauth->authenticate($_[0]) });
 # Mojo::UserAgent
 my $ua = Mojo::UserAgent->new;
 $ua->on(start => sub { $oauth->authenticate($_[1]->req) });


The process of retrieving access tokens and token secrets for authorization on behalf of a user may differ among various APIs, but it follows this general format (error checking is left as an exercise to the reader):

 use WWW::OAuth;
 use WWW::OAuth::Util 'form_urldecode';
 use HTTP::Tiny;
 my $ua = HTTP::Tiny->new;
 my $oauth = WWW::OAuth->new(
   client_id => $client_id,
   client_secret => $client_secret,
 # Request token request
 my $res = $oauth->authenticate({ method => 'POST', url => $request_token_url },
   { oauth_callback => $callback_url })->request_with($ua);
 my %res_data = @{form_urldecode $res->{content}};
 my ($request_token, $request_secret) = @res_data{'oauth_token','oauth_token_secret'};

Now, the returned request token must be used to construct a URL for the user to go to and authorize your application. The exact method differs by API. The user will usually be redirected to the $callback_url passed earlier after authorizing, with a verifier token that can be used to retrieve the access token and secret.

 # Access token request
 my $res = $oauth->authenticate({ method => 'POST', url => $access_token_url },
   { oauth_verifier => $verifier_token })->request_with($ua);
 my %res_data = @{form_urldecode $res->{content}};
 my ($access_token, $access_secret) = @res_data{'oauth_token','oauth_token_secret'};

Finally, the access token and secret can now be stored and used to authorize your application on behalf of this user.



WWW::OAuth implements the following attributes.


 my $client_id = $oauth->client_id;
 $oauth        = $oauth->client_id($client_id);

Client ID used to identify application (sometimes called an API key or consumer key). Required for all requests.


 my $client_secret = $oauth->client_secret;
 $oauth            = $oauth->client_secret($client_secret);

Client secret used to authenticate application (sometimes called an API secret or consumer secret). Required for all requests.


 my $token = $oauth->token;
 $oauth    = $oauth->token($token);

Request or access token used to identify resource owner. Leave undefined for temporary credentials requests (request token requests).


 my $token_secret = $oauth->token_secret;
 $oauth           = $oauth->token_secret($token_secret);

Request or access token secret used to authenticate on behalf of resource owner. Leave undefined for temporary credentials requests (request token requests).


 my $method = $oauth->signature_method;
 $oauth     = $oauth->signature_method($method);

Signature method, can be PLAINTEXT, HMAC-SHA1, RSA-SHA1, or a custom signature method. For RSA-SHA1 or custom signature methods, a "signer" must be provided. Defaults to HMAC-SHA1.


 my $signer = $oauth->signer;
 $oauth     = $oauth->signer(sub {
   my ($base_str, $client_secret, $token_secret) = @_;
   return $signature;

Coderef which implements the "signature_method". A default signer is provided for signature methods PLAINTEXT and HMAC-SHA1; this attribute is required for other signature methods. For signature method RSA-SHA1, this attribute may also be an object which has a sign method like Crypt::OpenSSL::RSA.

The signer is passed the computed signature base string, the client secret, and (if present) the token secret, and must return the signature string.


WWW::OAuth implements the following methods.


 $container = $oauth->authenticate($container, \%oauth_params);
 my $container = $oauth->authenticate($http_request, \%oauth_params);
 my $container = $oauth->authenticate(Basic => { method => 'GET', url => $url }, \%oauth_params);

Wraps the HTTP request in a container with "oauth_request" in WWW::OAuth::Util, then sets the Authorization header using "authorization_header" to sign the request for OAuth 1.0. An optional hashref of OAuth parameters will be passed through to "authorization_header". Returns the container object.


 my $auth_header = $oauth->authorization_header($container, \%oauth_params);
 my $auth_header = $oauth->authorization_header($http_request, \%oauth_params);
 my $auth_header = $oauth->authorization_header(Basic => { method => 'GET', url => $url }, \%oauth_params);

Forms an OAuth 1.0 signed Authorization header for the passed request. As in "authenticate", the request may be specified in any form accepted by "oauth_request" in WWW::OAuth::Util. OAuth protocol parameters (starting with oauth_ or the special parameter realm) may be optionally specified in a hashref and will override any generated protocol parameters of the same name (they should not be present in the request URL or body parameters). Returns the signed header value.


Request containers provide a unified interface for "authenticate" to parse and update HTTP requests. They must perform the Role::Tiny role WWW::OAuth::Request. Custom container classes can be instantiated directly or via "oauth_request" in WWW::OAuth::Util.


WWW::OAuth::Request::Basic contains the request attributes directly, for user agents such as HTTP::Tiny that do not use request objects.


WWW::OAuth::Request::HTTP_Request wraps a HTTP::Request object, which is compatible with several user agents including LWP::UserAgent, HTTP::Thin, and Net::Async::HTTP.


WWW::OAuth::Request::Mojo wraps a Mojo::Message::Request object, which is used by Mojo::UserAgent via Mojo::Transaction.


Report any issues on the public bugtracker.


Dan Book <>


This software is Copyright (c) 2015 by Dan Book.

This is free software, licensed under:

  The Artistic License 2.0 (GPL Compatible)


Net::OAuth, Mojolicious::Plugin::OAuth2