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Locale::Maketext::Fuzzy - Maketext from already interpolated strings


    package MyApp::L10N;
    use base 'Locale::Maketext::Fuzzy'; # instead of Locale::Maketext

    package MyApp::L10N::de;
    use base 'MyApp::L10N';
    our %Lexicon = (
        # Exact match should always be preferred if possible
        "0 camels were released."
            => "Exact match",

        # Fuzzy match candidate
        "[quant,_1,camel was,camels were] released."
            => "[quant,_1,Kamel wurde,Kamele wurden] freigegeben.",

        # This could also match fuzzily, but is less preferred
        "[_2] released[_1]"
            => "[_1][_2] ist frei[_1]",

    package main;
    my $lh = MyApp::L10N->get_handle('de');

    # All ->maketext calls below will become ->maketext_fuzzy instead

    # This prints "Exact match"
    print $lh->maketext('0 camels were released.');

    # "1 Kamel wurde freigegeben." -- quant() gets 1
    print $lh->maketext('1 camel was released.');

    # "2 Kamele wurden freigegeben." -- quant() gets 2
    print $lh->maketext('2 camels were released.');

    # "3 Kamele wurden freigegeben." -- parameters are ignored
    print $lh->maketext('3 released.');

    # "4 Kamele wurden freigegeben." -- normal usage
    print $lh->maketext('[*,_1,camel was,camels were] released.', 4);

    # "!Perl ist frei!" -- matches the broader one
    # Note that the sequence ([_2] before [_1]) is preserved
    print $lh->maketext('Perl released!');


This module is a subclass of Locale::Maketext, with additional support for localizing messages that already contains interpolated variables.

This is most useful when the messages are returned by external sources -- for example, to match dir: command not found against [_1]: command not found.

Of course, this module is also useful if you're simply too lazy to use the

    $lh->maketext("[quant,_1,file,files] deleted.", $count);

syntax, but wish to write

    $lh->maketext_fuzzy("$count files deleted");

instead, and have the correct plural form figured out automatically.

If maketext_fuzzy seems too long to type for you, this module also provides a override_maketext method to turn all maketext calls into maketext_fuzzy calls.


$lh->maketext_fuzzy(key[, parameters...]);

That method takes exactly the same arguments as the maketext method of Locale::Maketext.

If key is found in lexicons, it is applied in the same way as maketext. Otherwise, it looks at all lexicon entries that could possibly yield key, by turning [...] sequences into (.*?) and match the resulting regular expression against key.

Once it finds all candidate entries, the longest one replaces the key for the real maketext call. Variables matched by its bracket sequences ($1, $2...) are placed before parameters; the order of variables in the matched entry are correctly preserved.

For example, if the matched entry in %Lexicon is Test [_1], this call:

    $fh->maketext_fuzzy("Test string", "param");

is equivalent to this:

    $fh->maketext("Test [_1]", "string", "param");

However, most of the time you won't need to supply parameters to a maketext_fuzzy call, since all parameters are already interpolated into the string.


If flag is true, this accessor method turns $lh->maketext into an alias for $lh->maketext_fuzzy, so all consecutive maketext calls in the $lh's packages are automatically fuzzy. A false flag restores the original behaviour. If the flag is not specified, returns the current status of override; the default is 0 (no overriding).

Note that this call only modifies the symbol table of the language class that $lh belongs to, so other languages are not affected. If you want to override all language handles in a certain application, try this:



  • The "longer is better" heuristic to determine the best match is reasonably good, but could certainly be improved.

  • Currently, "[quant,_1,file] deleted" won't match "3 files deleted"; you'll have to write "[quant,_1,file,files] deleted" instead, or simply use "[_1] file deleted" as the lexicon key and put the correct plural form handling into the corresponding value.

  • When used in combination with Locale::Maketext::Lexicon's Tie backend, all keys would be iterated over each time a fuzzy match is performed, and may cause serious speed penalty. Patches welcome.


Locale::Maketext, Locale::Maketext::Lexicon


This particular module was written to facilitate an auto-extraction layer for Slashcode's Template Toolkit provider, based on HTML::Parser and Template::Parser. It would work like this:

    Input | <B>from the [% story.dept %] dept.</B>
    Output| <B>[%|loc( story.dept )%]from the [_1] dept.[%END%]</B>

Now, this layer suffers from the same linguistic problems as an ordinary Msgcat or Gettext framework does -- what if we want to make ordinals from [% story.dept %] (i.e. from the 3rd dept.), or expand the dept. to department / departments?

The same problem occurred in RT's web interface, where it had to localize messages returned by external modules, which may already contain interpolated variables, e.g. "Successfully deleted 7 ticket(s) in 'c:\temp'.".

Since I didn't have the time to refactor DBI and DBI::SearchBuilder, I devised a loc_match method to pre-process their messages into one of the candidate strings, then applied the matched string to maketext.

Afterwards, I realized that instead of preparing a set of candidate strings, I could actually match against the original lexicon file (i.e. PO files via Locale::Maketext::Lexicon). This is how Locale::Maketext::Fuzzy was born.


Audrey Tang <>

CC0 1.0 Universal

To the extent possible under law, 唐鳳 has waived all copyright and related or neighboring rights to Locale-Maketext-Fuzzy.

This work is published from Taiwan.

1 POD Error

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