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Encode::HanExtra - Extra sets of Chinese encodings


This document describes version 0.10 of Encode::HanExtra, released November 29, 2004.


    use Encode;

    # Traditional Chinese
    $euc_tw = encode("euc-tw", $utf8);   # loads Encode::HanExtra implicitly
    $utf8   = decode("euc-tw", $euc_tw); # ditto

    # Simplified Chinese
    $gb18030 = encode("gb18030", $utf8);    # loads Encode::HanExtra implicitly
    $utf8    = decode("gb18030", $gb18030); # ditto


Perl 5.7.3 and later ships with an adequate set of Chinese encodings, including the commonly used CP950, CP936 (also known as GBK), Big5 (alias for Big5-Eten), Big5-HKSCS, EUC-CN, HZ, and ISO-IR-165.

However, the numbers of Chinese encodings are staggering, and a complete coverage will easily increase the size of perl distribution by several megabytes; hence, this CPAN module tries to provide the rest of them.

If you are using perl 5.8 or later, Encode::CN and Encode::TW will automatically load the extra encodings for you, so there's no need to explicitly write use Encode::HanExtra if you are using one of them already.


This version includes the following encoding tables:

  Canonical   Alias                             Description
  big5-1984   /\b(tca-)?big5-?(19)?84$/i        TCA's original Big5-1984
  big5ext     /\b(cmex-)?big5-?e(xt)?$/i        CMEX's Big5e Extension
  big5plus    /\b(cmex-)?big5-?p(lus)?$/i       CMEX's Big5+ Extension
  cccii       /\b(ccag-)?cccii$/i               Chinese Character Code for
                                                Information Interchange
  cns11643-1  /\bCNS[-_ ]?11643[-_]1$/i         Taiwan's CNS map, plane 1
  cns11643-2  /\bCNS[-_ ]?11643[-_]2$/i         Taiwan's CNS map, plane 2
  cns11643-3  /\bCNS[-_ ]?11643[-_]3$/i         Taiwan's CNS map, plane 3
  cns11643-4  /\bCNS[-_ ]?11643[-_]4$/i         Taiwan's CNS map, plane 4
  cns11643-5  /\bCNS[-_ ]?11643[-_]5$/i         Taiwan's CNS map, plane 5
  cns11643-6  /\bCNS[-_ ]?11643[-_]6$/i         Taiwan's CNS map, plane 6
  cns11643-7  /\bCNS[-_ ]?11643[-_]7$/i         Taiwan's CNS map, plane 7
  cns11643-f  /\bCNS[-_ ]?11643[-_]f$/i         Taiwan's CNS map, plane F
  euc-tw      /\beuc.*tw$/i                     EUC (Extended Unix Character)
  gb18030     /\bGB[-_ ]?18030$/i               GBK with Traditional Characters
  unisys      /\bunisys$/i                      Unisys Traditional Chinese
  unisys-sosi1                                  Unisys SOSI1 transport encoding
  unisys-sosi2                                  Unisys SOSI2 transport encoding

Detailed descriptions are as follows:


This is the original Big5 encoding made by TCA Taiwan.


This encoding, while not heavily used, is an attempt to bring all Taiwan's conflicting internal-use encodings together, and fit it as an extension to the widely-deployed Big5 range, by CMEX Taiwan.


The CMEX's second (and less ambitious) try at unifying the most commonly used characters not covered by Big5, while not polluting out of the 94x94 arragement like BIG5PLUS did.


The earliest (and most sophisticated) Traditional Chinese encoding, with a three-byte raw character map, made in 1980 by the Chinese Character Analysis Group (CCAG), used mostly in library systems.


The EUC transport version of CNS11643 (planes 1-7), the comprehensive character set used by the Taiwan government.


The raw character map extracted from the Unihan database, including the plane F which wasn't included in EUC-TW.


An extension to GBK, this encoding lists most Han characters (both simplified and traditional), as well as some other encodings used by other peoples in China.


Unisys System's internal Chinese mapping.


If you are looking for ways to transliterate between Simplified and Traditional Chinese, please take a look at Encode::HanConvert. Note that the direct mapping via Unicode is lossy, and usually doesn't work at all.

Please send me suggestions if you want to see more encoding added, such as BIG5-GCCS (superseded by BIG5-HKSCS). Other suggestions are welcome, too.


Encode, Encode::HanConvert


Some of the maps here are generated from GNU libiconv's test files, with kind permission from Bruno Haible.

Map for BIG5PLUS is generated from the BIG52UCS.TXT file, courtesy of CMEX Taiwan (Chinese Microcomputer Extended Foundation,

Map for BIG5-1984 is supplied by imacat.


Autrijus Tang <>


Copyright 2002, 2003, 2004 by Autrijus Tang <>.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.