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par.pl - Make and Run Perl Archives


(Please see pp for convenient ways to make self-contained executables, scripts or PAR archives from perl programs.)

To use Hello.pm from ./foo.par:

    % par.pl -A./foo.par -MHello 
    % par.pl -A./foo -MHello    # the .par part is optional

Same thing, but search foo.par in the @INC;

    % par.pl -Ifoo.par -MHello 
    % par.pl -Ifoo -MHello      # ditto

Run test.pl or script/test.pl from foo.par:

    % par.pl foo.par test.pl    # looks for 'main.pl' by default,
                                # otherwise run 'test.pl' 

To make a self-containing script containing a PAR file :

    % par.pl -O./foo.pl foo.par
    % ./foo.pl test.pl          # same as above

To embed the necessary non-core modules and shared objects for PAR's execution (like Zlib, IO, Cwd, etc), use the -b flag:

    % par.pl -b -O./foo.pl foo.par
    % ./foo.pl test.pl          # runs anywhere with core modules installed

If you also wish to embed core modules along, use the -B flag instead:

    % par.pl -B -O./foo.pl foo.par
    % ./foo.pl test.pl          # runs anywhere with the perl interpreter

This is particularly useful when making stand-alone binary executables; see pp for details.


This stand-alone command offers roughly the same feature as perl -MPAR, except that it takes the pre-loaded .par files via -Afoo.par instead of -MPAR=foo.par.

Binary PAR loader (parl)

If you have a C compiler, a binary version of par.pl will also be automatically installed as parl. You can use it to run .par files:

    # runs script/run.pl in archive, uses its lib/* as libraries
    % parl myapp.par run.pl     # runs run.pl or script/run.pl in myapp.par
    % parl otherapp.pl          # also runs normal perl scripts

However, if the .par archive contains either main.pl or script/main.pl, it is used instead:

    % parl myapp.par run.pl     # runs main.pl, with 'run.pl' as @ARGV

Finally, as an alternative to Perl2exe or PerlApp, the -O option makes a stand-alone binary from a PAR file:

    % parl -B -Omyapp myapp.par
    % ./myapp                   # run it anywhere without perl binaries
    % ./myapp -Omyap2 myapp.par # makes a ./myap2, identical to ./myapp
    % ./myapp -Omyap3 myap3.par # makes another app with different PAR

Stand-alone executable format

The format for the stand-alone executable is simply concatenating the following elements:

  • The executable itself

    Either in plain-text (par.pl) or native executable format (parl or parl.exe).

  • Any number of embedded files

    These are typically used for bootstrapping PAR's various XS dependencies. Each section contains:

    The magic string "FILE"
    Length of file name in pack('N') format plus 9
    8 bytes of hex-encoded CRC32 of file content
    A single slash ("/")
    The file name (without path)
    File length in pack('N') format
    The file's content (not compressed)
  • One PAR file

    This is just a zip file beginning with the magic string "PK\003\004".

  • Ending section

    A pack('N') number of the total length of FILE and PAR sections, followed by a 8-bytes magic string: "\012PAR.pm\012".


PAR, parl, pp


Autrijus Tang <autrijus@autrijus.org>


Copyright 2002 by Autrijus Tang <autrijus@autrijus.org>.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.

See http://www.perl.com/perl/misc/Artistic.html