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Bread::Board - A solderless way to wire up your application components


version 0.32


  use Bread::Board;

  my $c = container 'MyApp' => as {

      service 'log_file_name' => "logfile.log";

      service 'logger' => (
          class        => 'FileLogger',
          lifecycle    => 'Singleton',
          dependencies => [ 'log_file_name' ],

      container 'Database' => as {
          service 'dsn'      => "dbi:SQLite:dbname=my-app.db";
          service 'username' => "user234";
          service 'password' => "****";

          service 'dbh' => (
              block => sub {
                  my $s = shift;
                  require DBI;
                  ) || die "Could not connect";
              dependencies => [ 'dsn', 'username', 'password' ]

      service 'application' => (
          class        => 'MyApplication',
          dependencies => {
              logger => 'logger',
              dbh    => 'Database/dbh',


  no Bread::Board; # removes keywords

  # get an instance of MyApplication
  # from the container
  my $app = $c->resolve( service => 'application' );

  # now user your MyApplication
  # as you normally would ...


Bread::Board is an inversion of control framework with a focus on dependency injection and lifecycle management. It's goal is to help you write more decoupled objects and components by removing the need for you to manually wire those objects/components together.

Want to know more? See the Bread::Board::Manual.

  |          A B C D E   F G H I J          |
  | o o |  1 o-o-o-o-o v o-o-o-o-o 1  | o o |
  | o o |  2 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 2  | o o |
  | o o |  3 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 3  | o o |
  | o o |  4 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 4  | o o |
  | o o |  5 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 5  | o o |
  |     |  6 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 6  |     |
  | o o |  7 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 7  | o o |
  | o o |  8 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 8  | o o |
  | o o |  9 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 9  | o o |
  | o o | 10 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 10 | o o |
  | o o | 11 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 11 | o o |
  |     | 12 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 12 |     |
  | o o | 13 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 13 | o o |
  | o o | 14 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 14 | o o |
  | o o | 15 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 15 | o o |
  | o o | 16 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 16 | o o |
  | o o | 17 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 17 | o o |
  |     | 18 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 18 |     |
  | o o | 19 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 19 | o o |
  | o o | 20 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 20 | o o |
  | o o | 21 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 21 | o o |
  | o o | 22 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 22 | o o |
  | o o | 22 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 22 | o o |
  |     | 23 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 23 |     |
  | o o | 24 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 24 | o o |
  | o o | 25 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 25 | o o |
  | o o | 26 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 26 | o o |
  | o o | 27 o-o-o-o-o   o-o-o-o-o 27 | o o |
  | o o | 28 o-o-o-o-o ^ o-o-o-o-o 28 | o o |

Loading this package will automatically load the rest of the packages needed by your Bread::Board configuration.


The functions of this package provide syntactic sugar to help you build your Bread::Board configuration. You can build such a configuration by constructing the objects manually instead, but your code may be more difficult to understand.

container ($name, &body)

This function constructs and returns an instance of Bread::Board::Container. The (optional) &body block may be used to add services or sub-containers within the newly constructed container. Usually, the block is not passed directly, but passed using the as function.

For example,

  container 'MyWebApp' => as {
      service my_dispatcher => (
          class => 'MyWebApp::Dispatcher',

If $name starts with '+', and the container is being declared inside another container, then this declaration will instead extend an existing container with the name $name (without the '+').

container ($container_instance, &body)

In many cases, subclassing Bread::Board::Container is the easiest route to getting access to this framework. You can do this and still get all the benefits of the syntactic sugar for configuring that class by passing an instance of your container subclass to container.

You could, for example, configure your container inside the BUILD method of your class:

  package MyWebApp;
  use Moose;

  extends 'Bread::Board::Container';

  sub BUILD {
      my $self = shift;

      container $self => as {
          service dbh => ( ... );
container ($name, [ @parameters ], &body)

A third way of using the container function is to build a parameterized container. These are useful as a way of providing a placeholder for parts of the configuration that may be provided later. You may not use an instance object in place of the $name in this case.

For more detail on how you might use parameterized containers, see "Parameterized Containers" in Bread::Board::Manual::Concepts::Advanced.

as (&body)

This is just a replacement for the sub keyword that is easier to read when defining containers.

service ($name, $literal | %service_description)

Within the as blocks for your containers, you may construct services using the service function. This can construct several different kinds of services based upon how it is called.

To build a literal service (a Bread::Board::Literal object), just specify a scalar value or reference you want to use as the literal value:

  # In case you need to adjust the gravitational constant of the Universe
  service gravitational_constant => 6.673E-11;

To build a service using one of the injection services, just fill in all the details required to use that sort of injection:

  service search_service => (
      class => 'MyApp::Search',
      block => sub {
          my $s = shift;
          MyApp::Search->new($s->param('url'), $s->param('type'));
      dependencies => {
          url => 'search_url',
      parameters => {
          type => { isa => 'Str', default => 'text' },

The type of injection performed depends on the parameters used. You may use the service_class parameter to pick a specific injector class. For instance, this is useful if you need to use Bread::Board::SetterInjection or have defined a custom injection service. If you specify a block, block injection will be performed using Bread::Board::BlockInjection. If neither of these is present, constructor injection will be used with Bread::Board::ConstructorInjection (and you must provide the class option).

The dependencies parameter takes a hashref of dependency names mapped to Bread::Board::Dependency objects, but there are several coercions and sugar functions available to make specifying dependencies as easy as possible. The simplest case is when the names of the services you're depending on are the same as the names that the service you're defining will be accessing them with. In this case, you can just specify an arrayref of service names:

  service foo => (
      dependencies => [ 'bar', 'baz' ],
      # ...

If you need to use a different name, you can specify the dependencies as a hashref instead:

  service foo => (
      dependencies => {
          dbh => 'foo_dbh',
      # ...

You can also specify parameters when depending on a parameterized service:

  service foo => (
      dependencies => [
          { bar => { bar_param => 1 } },
      # ...

Finally, services themselves can also be specified as dependencies, in which case they will just be resolved directly:

  service foo => (
      dependencies => {
          dsn => Bread::Board::Literal->new(
              name  => 'dsn',
              value => 'dbi:mysql:mydb',
      # ...

As a special case, an arrayref of dependencies will be interpreted as a service which returns an arrayref containing the resolved values of those dependencies:

  service foo => (
      dependencies => {
          # items will resolve to [ $bar_service->get, $baz_service->get ]
          items => [
              Bread::Board::Literal->new(name => 'baz', value => 'BAZ'),
      # ...

If the $name starts with a '+', the service definition will instead extend an existing service with the given $name (without the '+'). This works similarly to the has '+foo' syntax in Moose. It is most useful when defining a container class where the container is built up in BUILD methods, as each class in the inheritance hierarchy can modify services defined in superclasses. The dependencies and parameters options will be merged with the existing values, rather than overridden. Note that literal services can't be extended, because there's nothing to extend. You can still override them entirely by declaring the service name without a leading '+'.

depends_on ($service_path)

The depends_on function creates a Bread::Board::Dependency object for the named $service_path and returns it.

wire_names (@service_names)

This function is just a shortcut for passing a hash reference of dependencies into the service. It is not typically needed, since Bread::Board can usually understand what you mean - these declarations are all equivalent:

  service foo => (
      class => 'Pity::TheFoo',
      dependencies => {
          foo => depends_on('foo'),
          bar => depends_on('bar'),
          baz => depends_on('baz'),

  service foo => (
      class => 'Pity::TheFoo',
      dependencies => wire_names(qw( foo bar baz )),

  service foo => (
      class => 'Pity::TheFoo',
      dependencies => {
          foo => 'foo',
          bar => 'bar',
          baz => 'baz',

  service foo => (
      class => 'Pity::TheFoo',
      dependencies => [ qw(foo bar baz ) ],
typemap ($type, $service | $service_path)

This creates a type mapping for the named type. Typically, it is paired with the infer call like so:

  typemap 'MyApp::Model::UserAccount' => infer;

For more details on what type mapping is and how it works, see Bread::Board::Manual::Concepts::Typemap.

infer (?%hints)

This is used with typemap to help create the typemap inference. It can be used with no arguments to do everything automatically. However, in some cases, you may want to pass a service instance as the argument or a hash of service arguments to change how the type map works. For example, if your type needs to be constructed using a setter injection, you can use an inference similar to this:

  typemap 'MyApp::Model::UserPassword' => infer(
      service_class => 'Bread::Board::SetterInjection',

For more details on what type mapping is and how it works, see Bread::Board::Manual::Concepts::Typemap.

include ($file)

This is a shortcut for loading a Bread::Board configuration from another file.

  include "";

The above is pretty much identical to running:

  do "";

However, you might find it more readable to use include.

alias ($service_name, $service_path, %service_description)

This helper allows for the creation of service aliases, which allows you to define a service in one place and then reuse that service with a different name somewhere else. This is sort of like a symbolic link for services. Aliases will be resolved recursively, so an alias can alias an alias.

For example,

  service file_logger => (
      class => 'MyApp::Logger::File',

  alias my_logger => 'file_logger';


These are not exported, but might be helpful to you.

set_root_container ($container)

You may use this to set a top-level root container for all container definitions.

For example,

  my $app = container MyApp => as { ... };


  my $config = container Config => as { ... };

Here the $config container would be created as a sub-container of $app.


Thanks to Daisuke Maki for his contributions and for really pushing the development of this module along.

Chuck "sprongie" Adams, for testing/using early (pre-release) versions of this module, and some good suggestions for naming it.

Matt "mst" Trout, for finally coming up with the best name for this module.


Bread::Board is the right tool for this job Thomas Klausner showing a use-case for Bread::Board.



This provides more powerful syntax for writing Bread::Board container classes.


Bread::Board is basically my re-write of IOC.


All complex software has bugs lurking in it, and this module is no exception. If you find a bug please either email me, or add the bug to Github Issues.


Stevan Little <>


This software is copyright (c) 2014 by Infinity Interactive.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.