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Object::Relation::DataType - Complex data types for TKP


The Object::Relation::DataType name space is set aside for the creation of complex data types for TKP. By "complex" I mean serializable objects, such as dates, durations, states, etc. It also is designed to create a distinction from simpler data types, which are defined in Object::Relation::Meta::DataTypes.

What creates the distinction? Well, first and foremost is that fact that it doesn't usually take much to create the simple data types, while the complex data types might need more code to handle serialization and deserialization, overloading, etc. But another criterion is that, while the data types in Object::Relation::Meta::DataTypes are always loaded by TKP, since it uses them for its own classes, the complex data types in the Object::Relation::DataType name space tend to be loaded only as needed by the Object::Relation business classes that need them.

Okay, so it's somewhat arbitrary, but you get the idea. The remainder of this document is dedicated to documenting how to add new data types to TKP.

Adding Data Types to TKP

The first step is to determine exactly what the data type will consist of. Is it a simple string or number? A read-only object? A mutable object? Before you go any further, consider this: Any TKP business class that you create that inherits from Object::Relation::Base and is implemented using Object::Relation::Meta is already a data type. Its key attribute will name is as an attribute, and nothing further needs to be done.

So, aside from TKP business classes, there are essentially three different kinds of data types that you can add.

1 Simple scalar values
2 Simple objects
3 Complex objects

I'll cover how to create new data types for all three.

Simple scalar values

Simple scalar values are, as you might expect, the easiest data types to add to TKP. As an example, let's say that we wanted to add a real number data type. The first thing we need to do is to declare the new data type using Object::Relation::Meta::Type:

  use Object::Relation::Exceptions qw(throw_invalid);
  use Data::Types;
      key     => 'real',
      name    => 'Real Number',
      check   => sub {
          my ($new_val, $attr_name, $obj) = shift;
          return unless defined $new_val;
          Data::Types::is_real($new_val) or throw_invalid([
              'Value "[_1]" is not a real number',

The first two parameters should be pretty straight-forward: we need a key name for the data type. This key name must be unique across all other data types, as well as the key names of Object::Relation business classes. The name parameter is simply a display name for the data type.

The check parameter requires a bit more explanation. This optional parameter takes an anonymous subroutine as it value. The anonymous subroutine should expect three arguments: the new value being assigned to an attribute of the type we're defining, the name of the attribute, and the object to which the new value will be assigned. You may use any and all of these objects to validate the new value.

If the new value is not valid, then throw a Object::Relation::Exception::Fatal::Invalid exception--most easily done with the convenient throw_invalid() function importable from Object::Relation::Exceptions. Note that the way we've called it in the example is by passing it an array reference. The first item in the array reference is a Local::Maketext string, which is used by the exception class to localize the exception message using Object::Relation::Language.

This leads us to the second step in adding the new data type: adding the error message to the TKP lexicon. This can be done in one of two ways. If the new type is being added to the TKP distribution itself, then the error message should simply be added directly to Object::Relation::Language::en, like so:

    'Value "[_1]" is not a real number',
    'Value “[_1]” is not a real number',

Note that all strings in TKP must be in UTF-8; here I've used UTF-8 curly quotes for the translation of the error message into English. Other locales might chose to do something else (e.g., the French localization might want to use "«[_1]»", instead).

And now the data type has been added and you can just start using it, right? Well, no, not quite. We still need to tell the data stores how to store an attribute of this type. Currently, you tell each data store how to store a data type by editing Object::Relation::Schema::DB::Pg and Object::Relation::Schema::DB::SQLite directly. Fortunately, for a new type like our real type, this is quite simple. Each of these classes has a package-scoped lexical hash, %types, that maps data types to column types. All we have to do is add a new entry for the real data type. What column type? Well, consult the documentation for PostgreSQL's data types here:, and for SQLite's data types (such as they are) here: Having done so, we find that both support a "REAL" data type, so we simply add it to the %types hash in each module:

  real => 'REAL',

And that's it! Well, no, one more thing: write some tests! You want to make sure that your new data type works properly in TKP as well as in the data stores, so be sure to write some tests that validate that you can create real attributes, that invalid values fail, and that the databases complain if the values are invalid (this might take some trickery; see t/store/TEST/Object/Relation/Store/Handle/ for some examples).

Simple Objects

A simple object is an object that cannot be changed once it has been instantiated. The nice thing about a simple, read-only object, from TKP's point of view, is that if you need to change an attribute based on a read-only object data type, you just assign a new object. Objects that can be changed without assigning a new object to an attribute are more complex; they're covered below.

The above is a bit of a simplification, since currently you have to assign a new object to any attribute in order to change its value. You cannot simply change the object. For example, you might have a DateTime attribute, and you can fetch the DateTime object and then change it (by assigning it a different date, for example), but TKP doesn't know that it has changed, and therefore won't update it in the database. I plan to fix this issue, though I'm not sure how. So for now, all objects must be replaced in order to be updated in the data store.

A good example of a simple, read-only object is a version object. The version module represents numeric version numbers, and is, in fact, already a data type in TKP. But it makes a nice example, so we'll take a look at it here. Once again, the data type declaration simply requires a the use of Object::Relation::Meta::Type:

      key   => 'version',
      name  => 'Version',
      raw   => sub { ref $_[0] ? shift->stringify : shift },
      bake  => sub { version->new(shift) },
      check => 'version',

Now, you might think that this looks even simpler than the simple scalar data type, and in a sense you're right. We don't have to bother writing a check anonymous subroutine; instead, we just specify a package name. Object::Relation::Meta::Type will recognize it as such, and build a validating code reference for us, looking something like this:

  sub {
      my $val = shift;
      return unless defined $val;
      eval { $val->isa($pkg) }
          or throw_invalid([
              'Value "[_1]" is not a valid [_2] object',

In our version data type example, $pkg will be set to 'version'.

So what's with the other parameters? Well, they allow the version object to be properly serialized to and deserialized from the data store. The raw attribute requires a code reference that returns the raw value for storage in the data store. It's generally a good idea to check to make sure that the value is defined before calling any methods on it. Hence this code reference for getting the raw value from a version object:

      raw   => sub { ref $_[0] ? shift->stringify : shift },

The bake parameters is the converse of raw: it deserializes the value from the data store into an object. For version, it simply calls new() and passes in the raw value from the data store:

      bake  => sub { version->new(shift) },

The beautiful thing about the raw and bake parameters is that this is all you have to do to serialize and deserialize your object. TKP does the rest using these code references. In fact, TKP is smart enough that it doesn't serialize or deserialize a value unless it absolutely has to (such as when an accessor is called to fetch a value or when a value has been changed and needs to be updated in the data store.

As with simple scalar values, however, we still have to tell TKP what data store column types to use to store the value. As it happens, version objects are best stored in text rather than numeric columns, so all we have to do is tell the schema classes about it by adding a new entry to their %types variables:

  version => 'TEXT',

Complex Objects

Other object data types require more work. Perhaps you have to do more work to serialize and deserialize them (as in Object::Relation::DataTypee::Duration, or you need to subclass an existing object class in order to add new functionality (overloading, localization, etc.). In such a case, the best choice is to add the new class to the Object::Relation::DataType name space.

For example, say that we wanted to add a DateTime data type. In fact, TKP includes a such a data type, Object::Relation::DataType::DateTime, but it makes a convenient example. We wanted to subclass DateTime in order to add additional functionality: namely forcing new DateTime objects to default to the UTC time zone (rather than a floating time zone, the default), and to have a bake() constructor that accepts an ISO-8601-compliant date/time string.

Having implemented the new() and bake() methods in our subclass, we then declare the new data type right in the module itself:

  my $utc = DateTime::TimeZone::UTC->new;
      key     => 'datetime',
      name    => 'DateTime',
      raw     => sub {
          ref $_[0]
              ? shift->clone->set_time_zone($utc)->iso8601
              : shift;
      bake    => sub { __PACKAGE__->bake(shift) },
      check   => __PACKAGE__,

This example looks just like the others, except that we are here able to use the convenient __PACKAGE__ constant, since we're declaring the new data type right in the package that defines it. Furthermore, since data types defined in the Object::Relation::DataType name space are not automatically loaded, they consume no memory or processor cycles unless a module actually needs them and loads them itself. Again, we check the data types supported by each data store, and add them as appropriate to Object::Relation::Schema::DB::Pg and Object::Relation::Schema::DB::SQLite. It turns out that PostgreSQL calls the data type "TIMESTAMP", while SQLite calls it "DATETIME". So we add the appropriate value to each schema class's %types hash. For PostgreSQL:

  datetime => 'TIMESTAMP',

And for SQLite:

  datetime => 'DATETIME',

In reality, then, complex objects aren't much more complex than simple objects, except that we create a new class for them ourselves, rather than use an existing class.

Advanced Type Issues

There are a couple more tricks to defining TKP data types that merit notice here.

Data-Store Specific Serialization

The first is that different data stores may actually require that a given data type be serialized in different ways. Object::Relation::DataType::Duration is a case in point. It turns out that PostgreSQL has a proprietary INTERVAL data type that we could use, while SQLite has nothing equivalent. Since PostgreSQL natively supports INTERVALs, we can rely on it for ordering, BETWEEN queries, and the like, but its format does not translate well for similar functionality in the TEXT-based storage in SQLite. So two different serialization formats were required: One for PostgreSQL and one for SQLite.

To accommodate this, there is yet another Object::Relation::Meta::Type parameter for specifying a code reference that will return the serialized form of a data type that depends on the current data store. That parameter is store_raw. Here's how Object::Relation::DataType::Duration uses it:

      key       => 'duration',
      name      => 'Duration',
      raw       => sub { ref $_[0] ? shift->raw : shift },
      store_raw => sub { ref $_[0] ? shift->store_raw(@_) : shift },
      bake      => sub { __PACKAGE__->bake(shift) },
      check     => __PACKAGE__,

Looks just like the raw parameter, doesn't it? In truth, Object::Relation always uses the store_raw code reference to serialize a value for storage. It's always available because, if store_raw isn't specified, Object::Relation::Meta::Type uses raw, instead; and if raw isn't specified, it uses the accessor generated when the class is built (which is how it would work for the real data type we defined above).

How is the store_raw method implemented? It checks to see which store is in use and then does the right thing:

  sub store_raw {
      my ($self, $store) = @_;
      if ($store->isa('Object::Relation::Handle::DB::Pg')) {
          # return PostgreSQL format.
      else {
          # Return other format for SQLite, MySQL, or whatever.

By the way, in this case, I chose to use a different format for the return value of raw than either the PostgreSQL or SQLite format: A ISO-8601 compliant format. The SQLite format is a modified form of the ISO-8601 format that pads the various parts of the duration with zeros, so that they are truly storable in the database. Thus, we end up with three different formats, but the user of TKP doesn't really have to worry about any of them, except possibly for raw (which will be used in XML and the like), as the others are solely for the data stores to worry about.

Data Domains

Speaking of the data stores, as a design fundamental in TKP, the database is required to enforce the business rules as much as possible. This is to maintain the integrity of the data in the database, as well as to provide cover for any other applications that might access the database. In order to enforce the integrity of data types, since there are not always corresponding data types in the database itself, it can be useful to create "data domains", which are essentially new database column types.

PostgreSQL allows for the simple creation of explicit data domains. For example, it turns out that the format of version strings for version objects should never contain characters other than numbers, dots, and underscores. Obviously, the TEXT data type we selected above will not enforce that format for version columns, but we can create a new column type to do it. Simply add the following declaration to the list of other DOMAIN declarations in the setup_code() method of Object::Relation::Schema::DB::Pg:

  CONSTRAINT ck_version CHECK (
     VALUE ~ '^v?\\\\d[\\\\d._]+$'

PostgreSQL requires that backslashes be escaped with a backslash, so when we define PostgreSQL code with backslashes in Perl strings, we must escape them again. Hence the four backslashes in this example.

 We have now created a new data type that allows only numbers, dots, and
underscores. To get it in use, change the value stored in the C<%types> hash
to use the new domain:

  version => 'VERSION',

It's possible to enforce such constraints in SQLite, as well, using triggers and its REGEXP keyword (which will use the regexp() SQLite function defined by TKP, which therefore supports Perl regular expressions). Adding domain triggers to the SQLite data store is relatively trivial. Simply add a new triggers method, here it would be version_triggers(), that calls the private _domain_triggers() method to define the triggers. The arguments to _domain_triggers() are simple: The class for which the table triggers will be created, the name of the domain, and a SQL WHERE expression using '%s' as the placeholder for the column to be checked that will trigger an exception when it evaluates to true. Our version_triggers() method looks like this:

  sub version_triggers {
      my ($self, $class) = @_;
          version => q{%s NOT REGEXP '^v?\\d[\\d._]+$'

The _domain_triggers() method will create and return the actual TRIGGER statements. Now, to have this method called, simply add it to the list of trigger methods called by the constraints_for_class() method:

  my @cons = (
      $self->state_trigger(    $class ),
      $self->boolean_triggers( $class ),
      # ...
      $self->version_triggers( $class ),

Now the integrity of version data in the database will be reinforced. Or will it? Write some tests to make sure!

Copyright and License

Copyright (c) 2004-2006 Kineticode, Inc. <>

This module is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.