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Mojolicious - Real-time web framework


  # Application
  package MyApp;
  use Mojo::Base 'Mojolicious';

  # Route
  sub startup {
    my $self = shift;

  # Controller
  package MyApp::Foo;
  use Mojo::Base 'Mojolicious::Controller';

  # Action
  sub hello {
    my $self = shift;
    $self->render(text => 'Hello World!');


Take a look at our excellent documentation in Mojolicious::Guides!


Mojolicious will emit the following hooks in the listed order.


Emitted right after the transaction is built and before the HTTP request gets parsed.

  $app->hook(after_build_tx => sub {
    my ($tx, $app) = @_;

This is a very powerful hook and should not be used lightly, it makes some rather advanced features such as upload progress bars possible. Note that this hook will not work for embedded applications. (Passed the transaction and application object)


Emitted right before the static file server and router start their work.

  $app->hook(before_dispatch => sub {
    my $c = shift;

Very useful for rewriting incoming requests and other preprocessing tasks. (Passed the default controller object)


Emitted after a static file response has been generated by the static file server.

  $app->hook(after_static => sub {
    my $c = shift;

Mostly used for post-processing static file responses. (Passed the default controller object)


Emitted after the static file server determined if a static file should be served and before the router starts its work.

  $app->hook(before_routes => sub {
    my $c = shift;

Mostly used for custom dispatchers and collecting metrics. (Passed the default controller object)


Emitted right before an action gets invoked and wraps around it, so you have to manually forward to the next hook if you want to continue the chain. Default action dispatching is the last hook in the chain, yours will run before it.

  $app->hook(around_action => sub {
    my ($next, $c, $action, $last) = @_;
    return $next->();

This is a very powerful hook and should not be used lightly, it allows you for example to pass additional arguments to actions or handle return values differently. (Passed a callback leading to the next hook, the current controller object, the action callback and a flag indicating if this action is an endpoint)


Emitted after content has been generated by the renderer that is not partial. Note that this hook can trigger out of order due to its dynamic nature, and with embedded applications will only work for the application that is rendering.

  $app->hook(after_render => sub {
    my ($c, $output, $format) = @_;

Mostly used for post-processing dynamically generated content. (Passed the current controller object, a reference to the content and the format)


Emitted in reverse order after a response has been rendered. Note that this hook can trigger out of order due to its dynamic nature, and with embedded applications will only work for the application that is rendering.

  $app->hook(after_dispatch => sub {
    my $c = shift;

Useful for rewriting outgoing responses and other post-processing tasks. (Passed the current controller object)


Emitted right before the "before_dispatch" hook and wraps around the whole dispatch process, so you have to manually forward to the next hook if you want to continue the chain. Default exception handling with "render_exception" in Mojolicious::Controller is the first hook in the chain and a call to "dispatch" the last, yours will be in between.

  $app->hook(around_dispatch => sub {
    my ($next, $c) = @_;

This is a very powerful hook and should not be used lightly, it allows you for example to customize application wide exception handling, consider it the sledgehammer in your toolbox. (Passed a callback leading to the next hook and the default controller object)


Mojolicious inherits all attributes from Mojo and implements the following new ones.


  my $commands = $app->commands;
  $app         = $app->commands(Mojolicious::Commands->new);

Command line interface for your application, defaults to a Mojolicious::Commands object.

  # Add another namespace to load commands from
  push @{$app->commands->namespaces}, 'MyApp::Command';


  my $class = $app->controller_class;
  $app      = $app->controller_class('Mojolicious::Controller');

Class to be used for the default controller, defaults to Mojolicious::Controller.


  my $mode = $app->mode;
  $app     = $app->mode('production');

The operating mode for your application, defaults to a value from the MOJO_MODE and PLACK_ENV environment variables or development. Right before calling "startup", Mojolicious will pick up the current mode, name the log file after it and raise the log level from debug to info if it has a value other than development.


  my $moniker = $app->moniker;
  $app        = $app->moniker('foo_bar');

Moniker of this application, often used as default filename for configuration files and the like, defaults to decamelizing the application class with "decamelize" in Mojo::Util.


  my $plugins = $app->plugins;
  $app        = $app->plugins(Mojolicious::Plugins->new);

The plugin manager, defaults to a Mojolicious::Plugins object. See the "plugin" method below if you want to load a plugin.

  # Add another namespace to load plugins from
  push @{$app->plugins->namespaces}, 'MyApp::Plugin';


  my $renderer = $app->renderer;
  $app         = $app->renderer(Mojolicious::Renderer->new);

Used in your application to render content, defaults to a Mojolicious::Renderer object. The two main renderer plugins Mojolicious::Plugin::EPRenderer and Mojolicious::Plugin::EPLRenderer contain more information.

  # Add another "templates" directory
  push @{$app->renderer->paths}, '/home/sri/templates';

  # Add another class with templates in DATA section
  push @{$app->renderer->classes}, 'Mojolicious::Plugin::Fun';


  my $routes = $app->routes;
  $app       = $app->routes(Mojolicious::Routes->new);

The router, defaults to a Mojolicious::Routes object. You use this in your startup method to define the url endpoints for your application.

  # Add routes
  my $r = $app->routes;
  $r->get('/foo/bar')->to('test#foo', title => 'Hello Mojo!');

  # Add another namespace to load controllers from
  push @{$app->routes->namespaces}, 'MyApp::Controller';


  my $secret = $app->secret;
  $app       = $app->secret('passw0rd');

A secret passphrase used for signed cookies and the like, defaults to the "moniker" of this application, which is not very secure, so you should change it!!! As long as you are using the insecure default there will be debug messages in the log file reminding you to change your passphrase.


  my $sessions = $app->sessions;
  $app         = $app->sessions(Mojolicious::Sessions->new);

Signed cookie based session manager, defaults to a Mojolicious::Sessions object. You can usually leave this alone, see "session" in Mojolicious::Controller for more information about working with session data.

  # Change name of cookie used for all sessions


  my $static = $app->static;
  $app       = $app->static(Mojolicious::Static->new);

For serving static files from your public directories, defaults to a Mojolicious::Static object.

  # Add another "public" directory
  push @{$app->static->paths}, '/home/sri/public';

  # Add another class with static files in DATA section
  push @{$app->static->classes}, 'Mojolicious::Plugin::Fun';


  my $types = $app->types;
  $app      = $app->types(Mojolicious::Types->new);

Responsible for connecting file extensions with MIME types, defaults to a Mojolicious::Types object.

  # Add custom MIME type
  $app->types->type(twt => 'text/tweet');


  my $validator = $app->validator;
  $app          = $app->validator(Mojolicious::Validator->new);

Validate parameters, defaults to a Mojolicious::Validator object.


Mojolicious inherits all methods from Mojo and implements the following new ones.


  my $app = Mojolicious->new;

Construct a new Mojolicious application, calling ${mode}_mode and "startup" in the process. Will automatically detect your home directory and set up logging based on your current operating mode. Also sets up the renderer, static file server, a default set of plugins and an "around_dispatch" hook with the default exception handling.


  my $tx = $app->build_tx;

Transaction builder, defaults to building a Mojo::Transaction::HTTP object.


  my $hash = $app->defaults;
  my $foo  = $app->defaults('foo');
  $app     = $app->defaults({foo => 'bar'});
  $app     = $app->defaults(foo => 'bar');

Default values for "stash" in Mojolicious::Controller, assigned for every new request.

  # Remove value
  my $foo = delete $app->defaults->{foo};



The heart of every Mojolicious application, calls the "static" and "routes" dispatchers for every request and passes them a Mojolicious::Controller object.



Sets up the default controller and calls process for every request.


  $app->helper(foo => sub {...});

Add a new helper that will be available as a method of the controller object and the application object, as well as a function in ep templates.

  # Helper
  $app->helper(cache => sub { state $cache = {} });

  # Controller/Application
  $self->cache->{foo} = 'bar';
  my $result = $self->cache->{foo};

  # Template
  % cache->{foo} = 'bar';
  %= cache->{foo}


  $app->hook(after_dispatch => sub {...});

Extend Mojolicious with hooks, which allow code to be shared with all requests indiscriminately, for a full list of available hooks see "HOOKS".

  # Dispatchers will not run if there's already a response code defined
  $app->hook(before_dispatch => sub {
    my $c = shift;
    $c->render(text => 'Skipped static file server and router!')
      if $c->req->url->path->to_route =~ /do_not_dispatch/;


  $app->plugin('some_thing', foo => 23);
  $app->plugin('some_thing', {foo => 23});
  $app->plugin('SomeThing', foo => 23);
  $app->plugin('SomeThing', {foo => 23});
  $app->plugin('MyApp::Plugin::SomeThing', foo => 23);
  $app->plugin('MyApp::Plugin::SomeThing', {foo => 23});

Load a plugin, for a full list of example plugins included in the Mojolicious distribution see "PLUGINS" in Mojolicious::Plugins.



Start the command line interface for your application, for a full list of commands available by default see "COMMANDS" in Mojolicious::Commands.

  # Always start daemon and ignore @ARGV
  $app->start('daemon', '-l', 'http://*:8080');



This is your main hook into the application, it will be called at application startup. Meant to be overloaded in a subclass.

  sub startup {
    my $self = shift;


In addition to the attributes and methods above you can also call helpers on Mojolicious objects. This includes all helpers from Mojolicious::Plugin::DefaultHelpers and Mojolicious::Plugin::TagHelpers. Note that application helpers are always called with a new default controller object, so they can't depend on or change controller state, which includes request, response and stash.

  $app->log->debug($app->dumper({foo => 'bar'}));


The Mojolicious distribution includes a few files with different licenses that have been bundled for internal use.

Mojolicious Artwork

  Copyright (C) 2010-2013, Sebastian Riedel.

Licensed under the CC-SA License, Version 4.0


  Copyright (C) 2005, 2013 jQuery Foundation, Inc.

Licensed under the MIT License,


  Copyright (C) 2006, 2013 Google Inc.

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0


Every major release of Mojolicious has a code name, these are the ones that have been used in the past.

4.0, Top Hat (u1F3A9)

3.0, Rainbow (u1F308)

2.0, Leaf Fluttering In Wind (u1F343)

1.4, Smiling Face With Sunglasses (u1F60E)

1.3, Tropical Drink (u1F379)

1.1, Smiling Cat Face With Heart-Shaped Eyes (u1F63B)

1.0, Snowflake (u2744)

0.999930, Hot Beverage (u2615)

0.999927, Comet (u2604)

0.999920, Snowman (u2603)


Some of the work on this distribution has been sponsored by The Perl Foundation, thank you!


Sebastian Riedel,


Current members of the core team in alphabetical order:

    Abhijit Menon-Sen,

    Glen Hinkle,

    Joel Berger,

    Marcus Ramberg,


In alphabetical order:

    Adam Kennedy

    Adriano Ferreira

    Al Newkirk

    Alex Efros

    Alex Salimon

    Alexey Likhatskiy

    Anatoly Sharifulin

    Andre Vieth

    Andreas Jaekel

    Andreas Koenig

    Andrew Fresh

    Andrey Khozov

    Andy Grundman

    Aristotle Pagaltzis

    Ashley Dev

    Ask Bjoern Hansen

    Audrey Tang

    Ben van Staveren

    Benjamin Erhart

    Bernhard Graf

    Breno G. de Oliveira

    Brian Duggan

    Brian Medley

    Burak Gursoy

    Ch Lamprecht

    Charlie Brady

    Chas. J. Owens IV

    Christian Hansen


    Curt Tilmes

    Daniel Kimsey

    Danijel Tasov

    Danny Thomas

    David Davis

    David Webb

    Diego Kuperman

    Dmitriy Shalashov

    Dmitry Konstantinov

    Dominik Jarmulowicz

    Dominique Dumont

    Douglas Christopher Wilson

    Eugene Toropov

    Gisle Aas

    Graham Barr

    Henry Tang

    Hideki Yamamura

    Ian Goodacre

    Ilya Chesnokov

    James Duncan

    Jan Henning Thorsen

    Jan Jona Javorsek

    Jan Schmidt

    Jaroslav Muhin

    Jesse Vincent

    Johannes Plunien

    John Kingsley

    Jonathan Yu

    Josh Leder

    Kazuhiro Shibuya

    Kevin Old

    Kitamura Akatsuki

    Lars Balker Rasmussen

    Leon Brocard

    Magnus Holm

    Maik Fischer

    Mark Stosberg

    Marty Tennison

    Matthew Lineen

    Maksym Komar

    Maxim Vuets

    Michael Harris

    Mike Magowan

    Mirko Westermeier

    Mons Anderson

    Moritz Lenz

    Neil Watkiss

    Nic Sandfield

    Nils Diewald

    Oleg Zhelo

    Pascal Gaudette

    Paul Evans

    Paul Tomlin

    Pavel Shaydo

    Pedro Melo

    Peter Edwards

    Pierre-Yves Ritschard

    Quentin Carbonneaux

    Rafal Pocztarski

    Randal Schwartz

    Robert Hicks

    Robin Lee

    Roland Lammel

    Ryan Jendoubi

    Sascha Kiefer

    Scott Wiersdorf

    Sergey Zasenko

    Simon Bertrang

    Simone Tampieri

    Shu Cho

    Skye Shaw

    Stanis Trendelenburg

    Stephane Este-Gracias

    Tatsuhiko Miyagawa

    Terrence Brannon

    Tomas Znamenacek

    Ulrich Habel

    Ulrich Kautz

    Uwe Voelker

    Viacheslav Tykhanovskyi

    Victor Engmark

    Viliam Pucik

    Wes Cravens

    Yaroslav Korshak

    Yuki Kimoto

    Zak B. Elep


Copyright (C) 2008-2013, Sebastian Riedel.

This program is free software, you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the Artistic License version 2.0.