++ed by:
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Author image Mark Grimes
and 6 contributors


AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify - An AnyEvent compatible module to monitor files/directories for changes


version 1.23


Build Status CPAN version


    use AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify;

    my $notifier = AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify->new(
        dirs     => [ qw( this_dir that_dir ) ],
        interval => 2.0,             # Optional depending on underlying watcher
        filter   => sub { shift !~ /\.(swp|tmp)$/ },
        cb       => sub {
            my (@events) = @_;
            # ... process @events ...
        parse_events => 1,  # Improves efficiency on certain platforms

    # enter an event loop, see AnyEvent documentation


This module provides a cross platform interface to monitor files and directories within an AnyEvent event loop. The heavy lifting is done by Linux::INotify2 or Mac::FSEvents on their respective O/S. A fallback which scans the directories at regular intervals is include for other systems. See "WATCHER IMPLEMENTATIONS" for more on the backends.

Events are passed to the callback (specified as a CodeRef to cb in the constructor) in the form of AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify::Events.



A constructor for a new AnyEvent watcher that will monitor the files in the given directories and execute a callback when a modification is detected. No action is take until a event loop is entered.

Arguments for new are:

    dirs => [ '/var/log', '/etc' ],

An ArrayRef of directories to watch. Required.

    interval => 1.5,   # seconds

Specifies the time in fractional seconds between file system checks for the AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify::Role::Fallback implementation.

Specifies the latency for Mac::FSEvents for the AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify::Role::FSEvents implementation.

Ignored for the AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify::Role::Inotify2 implementation.

    filter => qr/\.(ya?ml|co?nf|jso?n)$/,
    filter => sub { shift !~ /\.(swp|tmp)$/,

A CodeRef or Regexp which is used to filter wanted/unwanted events. If this is a Regexp, we attempt to match the absolute path name and filter out any that do not match. If a CodeRef, the absolute path name is passed as the only argument and the event is fired only if there sub returns a true value.

    cb  => sub { my @events = @_; ... },

A CodeRef that is called when a modification to the monitored directory(ies) is detected. The callback is passed a list of AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify::Events. Required.

    backend => 'Fallback',
    backend => 'KQueue',
    backend => '+My::Filesys::Notify::Role::Backend',

Force the use of the specified backend. The backend is assumed to have the AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify::Role prefix, but you can force a fully qualified name by prefixing it with a plus. Optional.

    no_external => 1,

This is retained for backward compatibility. Using backend = 'Fallback'> is preferred. Force the use of the "Fallback" watcher implementation. This is not encouraged as the "Fallback" implement is very inefficient, but it does not require either Linux::INotify2 nor Mac::FSEvents. Optional.

    parse_events => 1,

In backends that support it (currently INotify2), parse the events instead of rescanning file system for changed stat() information. Note, that this might cause slight changes in behavior. In particular, the Inotify2 backend will generate an additional 'modified' event when a file changes (once when opened for write, and once when modified).

    skip_subdirs => 1,

Skips subdirectories and anything in them while building a list of files/dirs to watch. Optional.


INotify2 (Linux)

Uses Linux::INotify2 to monitor directories. Sets up an AnyEvent->io watcher to monitor the $inotify->fileno filehandle.

FSEvents (Mac)

Uses Mac::FSEvents to monitor directories. Sets up an AnyEvent->io watcher to monitor the $fsevent->watch filehandle.

KQueue (BSD/Mac)

Uses IO::KQueue to monitor directories. Sets up an AnyEvent->io watcher to monitor the IO::KQueue object.

WARNING - IO::KQueue and the kqueue() system call require an open filehandle for every directory and file that is being watched. This makes it impossible to watch large directory structures (and inefficient to watch moderately sized directories). The use of the KQueue backend is discouraged.


A simple scan of the watched directories at regular intervals. Sets up an AnyEvent->timer watcher which is executed every interval seconds (or fractions thereof). interval can be specified in the constructor to AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify and defaults to 2.0 seconds.

This is a very inefficient implementation. Use one of the others if possible.

Why Another Module For File System Notifications

At the time of writing there were several very nice modules that accomplish the task of watching files or directories and providing notifications about changes. Two of which offer a unified interface that work on any system: Filesys::Notify::Simple and File::ChangeNotify.

AnyEvent::Filesys::Notify exists because I need a way to simply tie the functionality those modules provide into an event framework. Neither of the existing modules seem to work with well with an event loop. Filesys::Notify::Simple does not supply a non-blocking interface and File::ChangeNotify requires you to poll an method for new events. You could fork off a process to run Filesys::Notify::Simple and use an event handler to watch for notices from that child, or setup a timer to check File::ChangeNotify at regular intervals, but both of those approaches seem inefficient or overly complex. Particularly, since the underlying watcher implementations (Mac::FSEvents and Linux::INotify2) provide a filehandle that you can use and IO event to watch.

This is not slight against the authors of those modules. Both are well respected, are certainly finer coders than I am, and built modules which are perfect for many situations. If one of their modules will work for you by all means use it, but if you are already using an event loop, this module may fit the bill.


Modules used to implement this module AnyEvent, Mac::FSEvents, Linux::INotify2, Moose.

Alternatives to this module Filesys::Notify::Simple, File::ChangeNotify.


Mark Grimes, <mgrimes@cpan.org>


  • Gasol Wu <gasol.wu@gmail.com> who contributed the BSD support for IO::KQueue

  • Dave Hayes <dave@jetcafe.org>

  • Carsten Wolff <carsten@wolffcarsten.de>

  • Ettore Di Giacinto (@mudler)

  • Martin Barth (@ufobat)


Source repository is at https://github.com/mvgrimes/AnyEvent-Filesys-Notify.


Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website http://github.com/mvgrimes/AnyEvent-Filesys-Notify/issues

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.


This software is copyright (c) 2017 by Mark Grimes, <mgrimes@cpan.org>.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.