NAME
Astro::Coord::ECI::Utils  Utility routines for astronomical calculations
SYNOPSIS
use Astro::Coord::ECI::Utils qw{ :all };
my $now = time ();
print "The current Julian day is ", julianday ($now);
DESCRIPTION
This module was written to provide a home for all the constants and utility subroutines used by Astro::Coord::ECI and its descendants. What ended up here was anything that was essentially a subroutine, not a method.
Because figuring out how to convert to and from Perl time bids fair to become complicated, this module is also responsible for figuring out how that is done, and exporting whatever is needful to export. See :time
below for the gory details.
This package exports nothing by default. But all the constants, variables, and subroutines documented below are exportable, and the following export tags may be used:
 :all

This imports everything exportable into your name space.
 :greg_time

This imports all time routines except the discouraged routines
time_gm()
andtime_local()
.  :mainstream

This imports everything not deprecated into your name space.
 :params

This imports the parameter validation routines
__classisa
and__instance
.  :ref

This imports all the
*_REF
constants.  :time

This imports the time routines into your name space. If Time::y2038 is available, it will be loaded, and both this tag and
:all
will importgmtime
,localtime
,time_gm
,time_local
,greg_time_gm
, andgreg_time_local
into your name space. Otherwise,Time::LocalTime::Local
will be loaded, and both this tag and:all
will importtime_gm
,time_local
,greg_time_gm
, andgreg_time_local
into your name space.  :vector

This imports the vector arithmetic routines. It includes anything whose name begins with
'vector_'
.
Under Perl 5.6 you may find that, if you use any of the above tags, you need to specify them first in your import list.
The following constants are exportable:
AU = number of kilometers in an astronomical unit
JD_OF_EPOCH = the Julian Day of Perl epoch 0
LIGHTYEAR = number of kilometers in a light year
PARSEC = number of kilometers in a parsec
PERL2000 = January 1 2000, 12 noon universal, in Perl time
PI = the circle ratio, computed as atan2 (0, 1)
PIOVER2 = half the circle ratio
SECSPERDAY = the number of seconds in a day
SECS_PER_SIDERIAL_DAY = seconds in a siderial day
SPEED_OF_LIGHT = speed of light in kilometers per second
TWOPI = twice the circle ratio
ARRAY_REF = 'ARRAY'
CODE_REF = 'CODE'
HASH_REF = 'HASH'
SCALAR_REF = 'SCALAR'
The following global variables are exportable:
$DATETIMEFORMAT
This variable represents the POSIX::strftime format used to convert times to strings. The default value is '%a %b %d %Y %H:%M:%S' to be consistent with the behavior of gmtime (or, to be precise, the behavior of ctime as documented on my system).
$JD_GREGORIAN
This variable represents the Julian Day of the switch from Julian to Gregorian calendars. This is used by date2jd(), jd2date(), and the routines which depend on them, for deciding whether the date is to be interpreted as in the Julian or Gregorian calendar. Its initial setting is 2299160.5, which represents midnight October 15 1582 in the Gregorian calendar, which is the date that calendar was first adopted. This is slightly different than the value of 2299161 (noon of the same day) used by Jean Meeus.
If you are interested in historical calculations, you may wish to reset this appropriately. If you use date2jd to calculate the new value, be aware of the effect the current setting of $JD_GREGORIAN has on the interpretation of the date you give.
In addition, the following subroutines are exportable:
 $angle = acos ($value)

This subroutine calculates the arc in radians whose cosine is the given value.
 $mag = add_magnitudes( $mag1, $mag2, ... );

This subroutine computes the total magnitude of a list of individual magnitudes. The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", Second Edition, Chapter 56, Page 393.
 $angle = asin ($value)

This subroutine calculates the arc in radians whose sine is the given value.
 $magnitude = atmospheric_extinction ($elevation, $height);

This subroutine calculates the typical atmospheric extinction in magnitudes at the given elevation above the horizon in radians and the given height above sea level in kilometers.
The algorithm comes from Daniel W. E. Green's article "Magnitude Corrections for Atmospheric Extinction", which was published in the July 1992 issue of "International Comet Quarterly", and is available online at http://www.icq.eps.harvard.edu/ICQExtinct.html. The text of this article makes it clear that the actual value of the atmospheric extinction can vary greatly from the typical values given even in the absence of cloud cover.
 $jd = date2jd ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr)

This subroutine converts the given date to the corresponding Julian day. The inputs are a Perl date and time; $mon is in the range 0  11, and $yr is from 1900, with earlier years being negative. The year 1 BC is represented as 1900.
If less than 6 arguments are provided, zeroes will be prepended to the argument list as needed.
The date is presumed to be in the Gregorian calendar. If the resultant Julian Day is before $JD_GREGORIAN, the date is reinterpreted as being from the Julian calendar.
The only validation is that the month be between 0 and 11 inclusive, and that the year be not less than 6612 (4713 BC). Fractional days are accepted.
The algorithm is from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", second edition, chapter 7 ("Julian Day"), pages 60ff, but the month is zerobased, not 1based, and years are 1900based.
 $epoch = date2epoch ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr)

This is a convenience routine that converts the given date to seconds since the epoch, going through date2jd() to do so. The arguments are the same as those of date2jd().
If less than 6 arguments are provided, zeroes will be prepended to the argument list as needed.
The functionality is the same as Time::Local::timegm, but this function lacks timegm's limited date range under Perls before 5.12.0. If you have Perl 5.12.0 or better, the core Time::Local
timegm()
will probably do what you want. If you have an earlier Perl, Time::y2038timegm()
may do what you want.  $time = decode_space_track_json_time( $string )

This subroutine decodes a time in the format Space Track uses in their JSON code. This is ISO8601ish, but with a possible fractional part and no zone.
 $rad = deg2rad ($degr)

This subroutine converts degrees to radians. If the argument is
undef
,undef
will be returned.  $value = distsq (\@coord1, \@coord2)

This subroutine calculates the square of the distance between the two sets of Cartesian coordinates. We do not take the square root here because of cases (e.g. the law of cosines) where we would just have to square the result again.
Notice that the subroutine does not assume threedimensional coordinates. If @coord1 and @coord2 have six entries, you will get a sixdimensional distance.
 $seconds = dynamical_delta ($time);

This method returns the difference between dynamical and universal time at the given universal time. That is,
$dynamical = $time + dynamical_delta ($time)
if $time is universal time.
The algorithm is from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 10, page 78. Meeus notes that this is actually an observed quantity, and the algorithm is an approximation.
 $boolean = embodies ($thingy, $class)

This subroutine represents a safe way to call the 'represents' method on $thingy. You get back true if and only if $thingy>can('represents') does not throw an exception and returns true, and $thingy>represents($class) returns true. Otherwise it returns false. Any exception is trapped and dismissed.
This subroutine is called 'embodies' because it was too confusing to call it 'represents', both for the author and for the Perl interpreter.
 ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr, $wday, $yday, 0) = epoch2datetime ($epoch)

This convenience subroutine converts the given time in seconds from the system epoch to the corresponding date and time. It is implemented in terms of jd2date (), with the year and month returned from that subroutine. The day is a whole number, with the fractional part converted to hours, minutes, and seconds. The $wday is the day of the week, with Sunday being 0. The $yday is the day of the year, with January 1 being 0. The trailing 0 is the summer time (or daylight saving time) indicator which is always 0 to be consistent with gmtime.
If called in scalar context, it returns the date formatted by POSIX::strftime, using the format string in $DATETIMEFORMAT.
The functionality is the same as the core
gmtime()
, but this function lacks gmtime's limited date range under Perls before 5.12.0. If you have Perl 5.12.0 or better, the coregmtime()
will probably do what you want. If you have an earlier Perl, Time::y2038gmtime()
may do what you want.The input must convert to a nonnegative Julian date. The exact lower limit depends on the system, but is computed by (JD_OF_EPOCH * 86400). For Unix systems with an epoch of January 1 1970, this is 210866760000.
Additional algorithms for day of week and day of year come from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 7 (Julian Day), page 65.
 $time = find_first_true ($start, $end, \&test, $limit);

This function finds the first time between $start and $end for which test ($time) is true. The resolution is $limit, which defaults to 1 if not specified. If the times are reversed (i.e. the start time is after the end time) the time returned is the last time test ($time) is true.
The
test()
function is called with the Perl time as its only argument. It is assumed to be false for the first part of the interval, and true for the rest. If this assumption is violated, the result of this subroutine should be considered meaningless.The calculation is done by, essentially, a binary search; the interval is repeatedly split, the function is evaluated at the midpoint, and a new interval selected based on whether the result is true or false.
Actually, nothing in this function says the independent variable has to be time.
 $folded = fold_case( $text );

This function folds the case of its input, kinda sorta. It maps to
CORE::fc
if that is available, otherwise it maps toCORE::lc
.  $fmtd = format_space_track_json_time( time() )

This function takes as input a Perl time, and returns that time in a format consistent with the Space Track JSON data. This is ISO8601ish, in Universal time, but without the zone indicated.
Note that Space Track does not represent fractional seconds, even in the epoch. This subroutine deals with this by truncating the epoch to seconds, and leaving the fractional seconds to the caller to deal with.
 $fmtd = __format_epoch_time_usec( time(), '%F %T' )

This function takes as input a Perl time with a possible fractional part, and returns that time as GMT in the given
strftime
format, but with seconds expressed to the nearest microsecond.  $epoch = greg_time_gm( $sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr );

This exportable subroutine is a wrapper for either
Time::y2038::timegm()
(if that module is installed),Time::Local::timegm_modern()
(if that is available), orTime::Local::timegm()
(if not.)This subroutine interprets years as Gregorian years.
The difference between this and
time_gm()
is thattime_gm()
interprets the year the wayTime::Local::timegm()
does. For that reason, this subroutine is preferred over c<time_gm()>.This wrapper is needed because the routines have subtly different signatures. Time::y2038
timegm()
interprets years strictly as Perl years. Time::Localtimegm_modern()
interprets them strictly as Gregorian years. Time::Localtimegm()
interprets them differently depending on the value of the year. Years greater than or equal to 1000 are Gregorian years, but all others are Perl years, except for the range 0 to 99 inclusive, which are within 50 years of the current year.If you are doing historical calculations, see Historical Calculations in the Astro::Coord::ECI::Sun documentation for a discussion of input and output time conversion.
 $epoch = greg_time_local( $sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr );

This exportable subroutine is a wrapper for either
Time::y2038::timelocal()
(if that module is installed),Time::Local::timelocal_modern()
(if that is available), orTime::Local::timelocal()
(if not.)This subroutine interprets years as Gregorian years.
The difference between this and c<time_local()> is that
time_local()
interprets the year the wayTime::Local::timelocal()
does. For that reason, this subroutine is preferred over c<time_local()>.This wrapper is needed for the same reason
greg_time_gm()
is needed.If you are doing historical calculations, see Historical Calculations in the Astro::Coord::ECI::Sun documentation for a discussion of input and output time conversion.
 $difference = intensity_to_magnitude ($ratio)

This function converts a ratio of light intensities to a difference in stellar magnitudes. The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", Second Edition, Chapter 56, Page 395.
Note that, because of the way magnitudes work (a more negative number represents a brighter star) you get back a positive result for an intensity ratio less than 1, and a negative result for an intensity ratio greater than 1.
 ($day, $mon, $yr, $greg, $leap) = jd2date ($jd)

This subroutine converts the given Julian day to the corresponding date. The returns are year  1900, month (0 to 11), day (which may have a fractional part), a Gregorian calendar indicator which is true if the date is in the Gregorian calendar and false if it is in the Julian calendar, and a leap (or bissextile) year indicator which is true if the year is a leap year and false otherwise. The year 1 BC is returned as 1900 (i.e. as year 0), and so on. The date will probably have a fractional part (e.g. 2006 1 1.5 for noon January first 2006).
If the $jd is before $JD_GREGORIAN, the date will be in the Julian calendar; otherwise it will be in the Gregorian calendar.
The input may not be less than 0.
The algorithm is from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", second edition, chapter 7 ("Julian Day"), pages 63ff, but the month is zerobased, not 1based, and the year is 1900based.
 ($sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr, $wday, $yday, 0) = jd2datetime ($jd)

This convenience subroutine converts the given Julian day to the corresponding date and time. All this really does is converts its argument to seconds since the system epoch, and pass off to epoch2datetime().
The input may not be less than 0.
 $century = jcent2000 ($time);

Several of the algorithms in Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms" are expressed in terms of the number of Julian centuries from epoch J2000.0 (e.g equations 12.1, 22.1). This subroutine encapsulates that calculation.
 $jd = jday2000 ($time);

This subroutine converts a Perl date to the number of Julian days (and fractions thereof) since Julian 2000.0. This quantity is used in a number of the algorithms in Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms".
The computation makes use of information from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 7, page 62.
 $jd = julianday ($time);

This subroutine converts a Perl date to a Julian day number.
The computation makes use of information from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 7, page 62.
 $ea = keplers_equation( $M, $e, $prec );

This subroutine solves Kepler's equation for the given mean anomaly
$M
in radians, eccentricity$e
and precision$prec
in radians. It returns the eccentric anomaly in radians, to the given precision.The
$prec
argument is optional, and defaults to the radian equivalent of 0.001 degrees.The algorithm is Meeus' equation 30.7, with John M. Steele's amendment for large values for the correction, given on page 205 of Meeus' book,
This subroutine is not used in the computation of satellite orbits, since the models have their own implementation.
 $rslt = load_module ($module_name)

This convenience method loads the named module (using 'require'), throwing an exception if the load fails. If the load succeeds, it returns the result of the 'require' builtin, which is required to be true for a successful load. Results are cached, and subsequent attempts to load the same module simply give the cached results.
 $boolean = looks_like_number ($string);

This subroutine returns true if the input looks like a number. It uses Scalar::Util::looks_like_number if that is available, otherwise it uses its own code, which is lifted verbatim from Scalar::Util 1.19, which in turn leans heavily on perlfaq4.
 $maximum = max (...);

This subroutine returns the maximum of its arguments. If List::Util can be loaded and 'max' imported, that's what you get. Otherwise you get a pure Perl implementation.
 $minimum = min (...);

This subroutine returns the minimum of its arguments. If List::Util can be loaded and 'min' imported, that's what you get. Otherwise you get a pure Perl implementation.
 $theta = mod2pi ($theta)

This subroutine reduces the given angle in radians to the range 0 <= $theta < TWOPI.
 $radians = omega ($time);

This subroutine calculates the ecliptic longitude of the ascending node of the Moon's mean orbit at the given dynamical time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, Chapter 22, pages 143ff.
 $pa = position_angle( $alpha1, $delta1, $alpha2, $delta2 );

This lowlevel subroutine calculates the position angle in right ascension of the second body with respect to the first, given the first body's right ascension and declination and the second body's right ascension and declination in that order, in radians.
The return is the position angle in radians, in the range
PI <= $pa < PI
.The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, page 116, but his algorithm is for the position angle of the first body with respect to the second (i.e. the roles of the two bodies are reversed). The order of arguments for this subroutine is consistent with The IDL Astronomy User's Library at https://idlastro.gsfc.nasa.gov/, function
posang()
.This is exposed because in principal you could calculate the position angle in any spherical coordinate system, you would just need to get the order of arguments right (e.g. azimuth, elevation or longitude, latitude).
 $degrees = rad2deg ($radians)

This subroutine converts the given angle in radians to its equivalent in degrees. If the argument is
undef
,undef
will be returned.  $deg_min_sec = rad2dms( $radians, $decimals, $degree_sign )

This subroutine converts the given angle in radians to its equivalent in degrees, minutes and seconds, represented as a string. Degrees will be suppressed if zero, and minutes will be suppressed if both degrees and minutes are zero. If degrees are present the default delimiter is a degree sign. The delimiters for minutes and seconds are
'
and"
respectively, with the"
appearing before the decimal point.The optional
$decimals
argument specifies the number of decimal places in the seconds value, and defaults to3
.The optional
$degree_sign
argument specifies the degree sign. The default is a Unicode degree sign,"\N{DEGREE SIGN}"
, a.k.a."\N{U+00B0}"
.  $hr_min_sec = rad2hms( $radians, $decimals )

This subroutine converts the given angle in radians to its equivalent in hours, minutes and seconds (presumably of right ascension), represented as a string. Hours will be suppressed if zero, and minutes will be suppressed if both hours and minutes are zero. The delimiters for hours, minutes, and seconds are
'h'
,'m'
, and's'
respectively, with the's'
appearing before the decimal point.The optional
$decimals
argument specifies the number of decimal places in the seconds value, and defaults to3
.  $value = tan ($angle)

This subroutine computes the tangent of the given angle in radians.
 $value = theta0 ($time);

This subroutine returns the Greenwich hour angle of the mean equinox at 0 hours universal on the day whose time is given (i.e. the argument is a standard Perl time).
 $value = thetag ($time);

This subroutine returns the Greenwich hour angle of the mean equinox at the given time.
The algorithm comes from Jean Meeus' "Astronomical Algorithms", 2nd Edition, equation 12.4, page 88.
 $epoch = time_gm( $sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr );

This exportable subroutine is a wrapper for either
Time::y2038::timegm()
(if that module is installed), orTime::Local::timegm()
(if not.)This subroutine interprets years the same way
Time::Local::timegm()
does.This wrapper is needed because the routines have subtly different signatures. Time::y2038
timegm()
interprets years strictly as Perl years. Time::Localtimegm()
interprets years differently depending on the value of the year; greater than 999 as Gregorian years, but other years are Perl years, except for the years 0 to 99 inclusive, which are interpreted as within 50 years of the current year.This subroutine is discouraged in favor of
greg_time_gm()
, which always interprets years as Gregorian years.  $epoch = time_local( $sec, $min, $hr, $day, $mon, $yr );

This exportable subroutine is a wrapper for either
Time::y2038::timelocal()
(if that module is installed), orTime::Local::timelocal()
(if not.)This subroutine interprets years the same way
Time::Local::timelocal()
does.This wrapper is needed for the same reason
time_gm()
is needed.This subroutine is discouraged in favor of
greg_time_local()
, which always interprets years as Gregorian years.  $a = vector_cross_product( $b, $c );

This subroutine computes and returns the vector cross product of $b and $c. Vectors are represented by array references. The cross product is only defined if both arrays have 3 elements.
 $a = vector_dot_product( $b, $c );

This subroutine computes and returns the vector dot product of $b and $c. Vectors are represented by array references. The dot product is only defined if both arrays have the same number of elements.
 $m = vector_magnitude( $x );

This subroutine computes and returns the magnitude of vector $x. The vector is represented by an array reference.
 $u = vector_unitize( $x );

This subroutine computes and returns a unit vector pointing in the same direction as $x. The vectors are represented by array references.
 $year = __tle_year_to_Gregorian_year( $year )

The TLE data contain the year in twodigit form. NORAD decided to deal with Y2K by decreeing that year numbers lower than 57 (the launch of Sputnik 1) are converted to Gregorian by adding 2000. Years numbers of 57 or greater are still converted to Gregorian by adding 1900. This subroutine encapsulates this logic. Years of 100 or greater are returned unmodified.
This subroutine is private to this package, and can be changed or revoked without notice.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to acknowledge Jean Meeus, whose book "Astronomical Algorithms" (second edition) published by WillmannBell Inc provided several of the algorithms implemented herein. WillmannBell ceased to be a separate entity in 2021, but their publications, including Dr. Meeus' book, are still available through Sky and Telescope's WillmannBell imprint at https://shopatsky.com/collections/willmannbell.
BUGS
Support is by the author. Please file bug reports at https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Astrosatpass, https://github.com/trwyant/perlAstroCoordECI/issues, or in electronic mail to the author.
AUTHOR
Thomas R. Wyant, III (wyant at cpan dot org)
COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE
Copyright (C) 20052023 by Thomas R. Wyant, III
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl 5.10.0. For more details, see the full text of the licenses in the directory LICENSES.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but without any warranty; without even the implied warranty of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose.