# NAME

Crypt::DSA::GMP - DSA Signatures and Key Generation

# SYNOPSIS

```
use Crypt::DSA::GMP;
my $dsa = Crypt::DSA::GMP->new;
my $key = $dsa->keygen(
Size => 512,
Seed => $seed,
Verbosity => 1
);
my $sig = $dsa->sign(
Message => "foo bar",
Key => $key
);
my $verified = $dsa->verify(
Message => "foo bar",
Signature => $sig,
Key => $key,
);
```

# DESCRIPTION

Crypt::DSA::GMP is an implementation of the DSA (Digital Signature Algorithm) signature verification system. The implementation itself is pure Perl, with mathematics support from Math::BigInt::GMP and Math::Prime::Util::GMP.

This package provides DSA signing, signature verification, and key generation.

This module is backwards compatible with Crypt::DSA. It removes a number of dependencies that were portability concerns. Importantly, it follows FIPS 186-4 wherever possible, and has support for the new hash methods.

See "RECOMMENDED KEY GENERATION PARAMETERS" for recommendations of key generation parameters.

# USAGE

The public interface is a superset of Crypt::DSA, and is intentionally very similar to Crypt::RSA.

## new

```
my $dsa_2 = Crypt::DSA::GMP->new;
my $dsa_4 = Crypt::DSA::GMP->new( Standard => "FIPS 186-4" );
```

Constructs and returns a new Crypt::DSA::GMP object. This is the object used to perform other useful actions.

The standard to follow may be given in this call, where it will be used in all methods unless overridden. Currently only two standards exist:

```
FIPS 186-2 (includes FIPS 186-1)
FIPS 186-4 (includes FIPS 186-3)
```

FIPS 186-2 is used as the default to preserve backwards compatibility. The primary differences:

```
- FIPS 186-2:
- Up to 80 bits of security (less with default SHA-1).
- NIST deprecated in 2009.
- Completely backward compatible with Crypt::DSA.
(barring differences caused by Crypt::DSA calling openssl)
- Key generation:
- SHA-1 is used for the CSPRNG.
- QSize (the size of q) must be 160 bits.
- Signing and verification:
- SHA-1 is used to hash Message:
less than 80 bits of security regardless of key sizes.
- No difference if Digest is given directly.
- FIPS 186-4:
- Up to 256 bits of security.
- Key generation:
- SHA-2 256/384/512 is used for the CSPRNG.
- QSize (the size of q) may be any integer from 1 to 512.
- The default QSize is 160 when Size < 2048.
- The default QSize is 256 when Size >= 2048.
- Signing and verification:
- SHA2-256 or SHA2-512 is used to hash Message.
- No difference if Digest is given directly.
```

## keygen

` $key = $dsa->keygen(%arg);`

Generates a new of DSA key, including both the public and private portions of the key.

*%arg* can contain:

Standard

If not provided or contains

`186-1`

or`186-2`

then the backward compatible implementation is used, using SHA-1. If it is provided and contains`186-3`

or`186-4`

then the newer and recommended FIPS 186-4 standard is used.For key generation this means different default and allowed sizes for

*q*, the use of SHA-256 or SHA-512 during random prime generation, and the FIPS 186-4 updated prime generation method.The FIPS 186-4 recommended primality tests are always used as they are more stringent than FIPS 186-2.

Size

The size in bits of the

*p*value to generate.This argument is mandatory, and must be at least 256.

QSize

The size in bits of the

*q*value to generate. This is optional.If FIPS 186-2 is being used or

*Size*is less than 2048, then the default value will be 160. If FIPS 186-4 is being used and*Size*is 2048 or larger, then the default value is 256.NIST SP 800-57 describes the cryptographic strengths of different

*Size*and*QSize*selections. Their table 2 includes:`Bits L N ----- ----- ----- 80 1024 160 112 2048 224 Bits = Bits of security 128 3072 256 L = Size = bit length of p 192 7680 384 N = QSize = bit length of q 256 15360 512`

In addition, if SHA-1 is used (the default without FIPS 186-4) then the bits of security provided is strictly less than 80 bits.

Seed

A seed with which

*q*generation will begin. If this seed does not lead to a suitable prime, it will be discarded, and a new random seed chosen in its place, until a suitable prime can be found.A seed that is shorter than the size of

*q*will be immediately discarded.This is entirely optional, and if not provided a random seed will be generated automatically.

Verbosity

Should be either 0 or 1. A value of 1 will give you a progress meter during

*p*and*q*generation--this can be useful, since the process can be relatively long.The default is 0.

Prove

Should be 0, 1,

*P*, or*Q*. If defined and true, then both the primes for*p*and*q*will have a primality proof constructed and verified. Setting to*P*or*Q*will result in just that prime being proven. The time for proving*q*should be minimal, but proving*p*when Size is larger than 1024 can be**very**time consuming.The default is 0, which means the standard FIPS 186-4 probable prime tests are done.

### RECOMMENDED KEY GENERATION PARAMETERS

These are recommended parameters for the "keygen" method.

For strict interoperability with all other DSA software, use:

` Size => 1024`

For better security and interoperability with anything but the most pedantic software (FIPS 186-2 had a maximum size of 1024; FIPS 186-4 strict compliance doesn't support this *(L,N)* pair):

` Size => 2048, QSize => 160, Prove => "Q", Standard => "186-4"`

For better security and good interoperability with modern code (including OpenSSL):

` Size => 3072, QSize => 256, Prove => "Q", Standard => "186-4"`

Note that signatures should a strong hash (either use the `Standard => "FIPS 186-4"`

option when signing, or hash the message yourself with something like *sha256*). Without this, the FIPS 186-2 default of SHA-1 will be used, and security strength will be less than 80 bits regardless of the sizes of *p* and *q*.

Using Size larger than 3072 and QSize larger than 256 is possible and most software will support this. NIST SP 800-57 indicates the two pairs *(7680,384)* and *(15360,512)* as examples of higher cryptographic strength options with 192 and 256 bits of security respectively. With either pair, an appropriately strong hash should be used, e.g. *sha512*, *sha3_512*, *skein_512*, or *whirlpool*. The main bottleneck is the time required to generate the keys, which could be several minutes.

## keyset

` my $key = $dsa->keyset(%arg);`

Creates a key with given elements, typically read from another source or via another module. *p*, *q*, and *g* are all required. One or both of *priv_key* and *pub_key* are required. *pub_key* will be constructed if it is not supplied but *priv_key* is not.

## sign

```
my $sig = $dsa->sign(Key => $key, Message => $msg);
my $sig = $dsa->sign(Key => $key, Digest => $hash_of_msg);
my $sig = $dsa->sign(%arg);
```

Signs a message (or the digest of a message) using the private portion of the DSA key and returns the signature.

The return value (the signature) is a Crypt::DSA::GMP::Signature object.

*%arg* can include:

Standard

If not provided or contains

`186-1`

or`186-2`

then the backward compatible implementation is used, using SHA-1. If it is provided and contains`186-3`

or`186-4`

then the newer and recommended FIPS 186-4 standard is used.For message signing this means FIPS 186-2 uses SHA-1 for digest construction and at most 160 bits of the digest is used. With FIPS 186-4, SHA-256 is used if the bit length of

*q*is 256 or less and SHA-512 is used otherwise. If the input is a Digest rather than a Message, then there will be no difference.Digest

A digest to be signed. If the digest length is larger than

*N*, the bit length of*q*, then only the leftmost*N*bits will be used (as specified in FIPS 186-4).You must provide either this argument or

*Message*(see below).Key

The Crypt::DSA::GMP::Key object with which the signature will be generated. Should contain a private key attribute (

*priv_key*).This argument is required.

Message

A plaintext message to be signed. If you provide this argument,

*sign*will first produce a digest of the plaintext, then use that as the digest to sign. Thus writing`my $sign = $dsa->sign(Message => $message, ... );`

is a shorter way of writing

`# FIPS 186-2: use Digest::SHA qw( sha1 ); my $sig = $dsa->sign(Digest => sha1( $message ), ... ); # FIPS 186-4 with QSize <= 256: use Digest::SHA qw( sha256 ); my $sig = $dsa->sign(Digest => sha256( $message ), ... );`

## verify

```
my $v = $dsa->verify(Key=>$key, Signature=>$sig, Message=>$msg);
my $v = $dsa->verify(Key=>$key, Signature=>$sig, Digest=>$hash);
my $v = $dsa->verify(%arg);
```

Verifies a signature generated with "sign". Returns a true value on success and false on failure.

*%arg* can contain:

Standard

If not provided or contains

`186-1`

or`186-2`

then the backward compatible implementation is used, using SHA-1. If it is provided and contains`186-3`

or`186-4`

then the newer and recommended FIPS 186-4 standard is used.For message verification this means FIPS 186-2 uses SHA-1 for digest construction and at most 160 bits of the digest is used. With FIPS 186-4, SHA-256 is used if the bit length of

*q*is 256 or less and SHA-512 is used otherwise. If the input is a Digest rather than a Message, then there will be no difference.Key

Key of the signer of the message; a Crypt::DSA::GMP::Key object. The public portion of the key is used to verify the signature.

This argument is required.

Signature

The signature itself. Should be in the same format as returned from "sign", a Crypt::DSA::GMP::Signature object.

This argument is required.

Digest

The original signed digest. This must be computed using the same hash that was used to sign the message.

Either this argument or

*Message*(see below) must be present.Message

As above in

*sign*, the plaintext message that was signed, a string of arbitrary length. A digest of this message will be created and used in the verification process.

# SUPPORT

Bugs should be reported via the CPAN bug tracker at

http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=Crypt-DSA-GMP

For other issues, contact the author.

# AUTHORS

Dana Jacobsen <dana@acm.org> wrote the new internals.

Benjamin Trott <ben@sixapart.com> wrote Crypt::DSA which was the basis for this module. The PEM module remains almost entirely his code.

# COPYRIGHT

Copyright 2013 by Dana Jacobsen <dana@acm.org>. Portions Copyright 2006-2011 by Benjamin Trott.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.