Data::Unixish - Implementation for Unixish, a data transformation framework


This document describes version 1.572 of Data::Unixish (from Perl distribution Data-Unixish), released on 2019-10-26.


 # the a/f/l/c prefix determines whether function accepts
 # arrayref/file(handle)/list/callback as input. the a/f/l/c suffix determines
 # whether function returns an array, a list, a filehandle, or calls a callback.
 # If filehandle is chosen as output, a child process is forked to process input
 # as requested.

 use Data::Unixish qw(
                       aduxa cduxa fduxa lduxa
                       aduxc cduxc fduxc lduxc
                       aduxf cduxf fduxf lduxf
                       aduxl cduxl fduxl lduxl
 ); # or you can use :all to export all functions

 # apply function, without argument
 my @out = lduxl('sort', 7, 2, 4, 1);  # => (1, 2, 4, 7)
 my $out = lduxa('uc', "a", "b", "c"); # => ["A", "B", "C"]
 my $res = fduxl('wc', "file.txt");    # => "12\n234\n2093" # like wc's output

 # apply function, with some arguments
 my $fh = fduxf([trunc => {width=>80, ansi=>1, mb=>1}], \*STDIN);
 say while <$fh>;

 # apply function to a single item, function must be itemfunc
 my $res = duxitem(, $item);

 # apply function to multiple items, function must be itemfunc
 my @res = aduxitem(, $item1, $item2, $item3);


This distribution implements Unixish, a data transformation framework inspired by Unix toolbox philosophy.


The functions are not exported by default. They can be exported individually or altogether using export tag :all.

aduxa($func, \@input) => ARRAYREF

aduxc($func, $callback, \@input)

aduxf($func, \@input) => FILEHANDLE

aduxl($func, \@input) => LIST (OR SCALAR)

The adux* functions accept an arrayref as input. $func is a string containing dux function name (if no arguments to the dux function is to be supplied), or [$func, \%args] to supply arguments to the dux function. Dux function name corresponds to module names Data::Unixish::NAME without the prefix.

The *duxc functions will call the callback repeatedly with every output item.

The *duxf functions returns filehandle immediately. A child process is forked, and dux function is run in the child process. You read output as lines from the returned filehandle. (Currently not yet supported on Windows due to no support for open '-|').

The *duxl functions returns result as list. It can be evaluated in scalar to return only the first element of the list. However, the whole list will be calculated first. Use *duxf for streaming interface.

cduxa($func, $icallback) => ARRAYREF

cduxc($func, $icallback, $ocallback)

cduxf($func, $icallback) => FILEHANDLE

cduxl($func, $icallback) => LIST (OR SCALAR)

The cdux* functions accepts a callback ($icallback) to get input elements from. Input callback function should return a list of one or more elements, or an empty list to signal end of stream.

An example:

 cduxa($func, sub {
     state $a = [1,2,3,4];
     if (@$a) {
         return shift(@$a);
     } else {
         return ();

fduxa($func, $file_or_handle, @args) => ARRAYREF

fduxc($func, $callback, $file_or_handle, @args)

fduxf($func, $file_or_handle, @args) => FILEHANDLE

fduxl($func, $file_or_handle, @args) => LIST

The fdux* functions accepts filename or filehandle. @args is optional and will be passed to Tie::File. Currently not yet supported on Windows.

lduxa($func, @input) => ARRAYREF

lduxc($func, $callback, @input)

lduxf($func, @input) => FILEHANDLE

lduxl($func, @input) => LIST

The ldux* functions accepts list as input.

siduxs($func, $item) => $res

aiduxa($func, \@items) => ARRAYREF

aiduxl($func, \@items) => LIST

liduxa($func, @items) => ARRAYREF

liduxl($func, @items) => LIST

The *idux* functions apply dux function on single item(s). Only dux functions tagged with itemfunc can be used. These functions can operate on a single item and return a single result. Examples of itemfunc functions are uc, lc, sprintf. Examples of non-itemfunc functions are head, tail, wc.

The *idux* functions can be useful if you want to call a dux function from another dux function for each item. For example, see Data::Unixish::condapply.


I'm getting "Use of uninitialized value in push at lib/Data/Unixish/ line XX." messages!

This looks like a bug in perl 5.10.1 or earlier. Try upgrading to perl 5.12 or later.

How do I use the diamond operator as input?

You can use Tie::Diamond, e.g.:

 use Tie::Diamond;
 tie my(@in), "Tie::Diamond";
 my $out = aduxa($func, \@in);

Also see the dux command-line utility in the App::dux distribution which allows you to access dux function from the command-line.


Please visit the project's homepage at


Source repository is at


Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.



dux script in App::dux


perlancar <>


This software is copyright (c) 2019, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012 by

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.