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Author image Nick Wellnhofer


Email::MIME::RFC2047 - Correct handling of non-ASCII MIME headers


version 0.97


    use Email::MIME;

    # create headers with non-ASCII chars

    use Email::MIME::RFC2047::Encoder;
    use Email::MIME::RFC2047::Mailbox;

    my $email = Email::MIME->create();
    my $encoder = Email::MIME::RFC2047::Encoder->new(
        encoding => 'utf-8',
        method   => 'Q',

        Subject => $encoder->encode_text($non_ascii_subject)

    my $to_address = Email::MIME::RFC2047::Mailbox->new(
        name    => $non_ascii_name,
        address => $email_address,
    $email->header_set(To => $to_address->format($encoder));

    # parse headers with non-ASCII chars

    use Email::MIME::RFC2047::Decoder;

    my $email = Email::MIME->new($message);
    my $decoder = Email::MIME::RFC2047::Decoder->new();

    my $subject = $decoder->decode_text($email->header('Subject'));

    my $to_address = Email::MIME::RFC2047::AddressList->parse(


This distribution tries to provide a correct and usable implementation of RFC 2047 "MIME Part Three: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text". The Encode::MIME::Header module also provides RFC 2047 encoding and decoding but a useful API should handle the different situations where RFC 2047 encoded headers are used. Section 5 of the RFC defines three use cases for 'encoded-words':

(1) As a replacement of 'text' tokens, for example in a Subject header

(2) In comments

(3) As a replacement for a 'word' entity within a 'phrase', for example, one that precedes an address in a From, To, or Cc header

Especially, case (3) requires the handling of quoted strings as defined by RFC 2822. So the encoding and decoding modules provide separate methods for the handling of text and phrases.

Since parsing and encoding of phrases makes up the bulk of handling address headers like From, To or Cc, additional modules to handle these headers are also provided.

See Email::MIME::RFC2047::Encoder for encoding.

See Email::MIME::RFC2047::Decoder for decoding.

See Email::MIME::RFC2047::Mailbox for handling of Sender headers.

See Email::MIME::RFC2047::MailboxList for handling of From headers.

See Email::MIME::RFC2047::AddressList for handling of Reply-To, To, Cc and Bcc headers.

See Email::MIME::RFC2047::Group for handling groups of mailboxes.


Nick Wellnhofer <wellnhofer@aevum.de>


This software is copyright (c) 2017 by Nick Wellnhofer.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.