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Email::Valid - Check validity of Internet email addresses


version 1.204


  use Email::Valid;
  my $address = Email::Valid->address('');
  print ($address ? 'yes' : 'no');


This module determines whether an email address is well-formed, and optionally, whether a mail host exists for the domain.

Please note that there is no way to determine whether an address is deliverable without attempting delivery (for details, see perlfaq 9).


This library should run on perls released even a long time ago. It should work on any version of perl released in the last five years.

Although it may work on older versions of perl, no guarantee is made that the minimum required version will not be increased. The version may be increased for any reason, and there is no promise that patches will be accepted to lower the minimum required perl.


This module requires perl 5.004 or later and the Mail::Address module. Either the Net::DNS module or the nslookup utility is required for DNS checks. The Net::Domain::TLD module is required to check the validity of top level domains.


Every method which accepts an <ADDRESS> parameter may be passed either a string or an instance of the Mail::Address class. All errors raise an exception.

new ( [PARAMS] )

This method is used to construct an Email::Valid object. It accepts an optional list of named parameters to control the behavior of the object at instantiation.

The following named parameters are allowed. See the individual methods below for details.


This method accepts an email address or domain name and determines whether a DNS record (A or MX) exists for it.

The method returns true if a record is found and undef if not.

Either the Net::DNS module or the nslookup utility is required for DNS checks. Using Net::DNS is the preferred method since error handling is improved. If Net::DNS is available, you can modify the behavior of the resolver (e.g. change the default tcp_timeout value) by manipulating the global Net::DNS::Resolver instance stored in $Email::Valid::Resolver.

rfc822 ( <ADDRESS> )

This method determines whether an address conforms to the RFC822 specification (except for nested comments). It returns true if it conforms and undef if not.

fudge ( <TRUE>|<FALSE> )

Specifies whether calls to address() should attempt to correct common addressing errors. Currently, this results in the removal of spaces in AOL addresses, and the conversion of commas to periods in Compuserve addresses. The default is false.

allow_ip ( <TRUE>|<FALSE> )

Specifies whether a "domain literal" is acceptable as the domain part. That means addresses like: rjbs@[]

The checking for the domain literal is stricter than the RFC and looser than checking for a valid IP address, but this is subject to change.

The default is true.

fqdn ( <TRUE>|<FALSE> )

Specifies whether addresses passed to address() must contain a fully qualified domain name (FQDN). The default is true.

Please note! FQDN checks only occur for non-domain-literals. In other words, if you have set allow_ip and the address ends in a bracketed IP address, the FQDN check will not occur.

tld ( <ADDRESS> )

This method determines whether the domain part of an address is in a recognized top-level domain.

Please note! TLD checks only occur for non-domain-literals. In other words, if you have set allow_ip and the address ends in a bracketed IP address, the TLD check will not occur.

local_rules ( <TRUE>|<FALSE> )

Specifies whether addresses passed to address() should be tested for domain specific restrictions. Currently, this is limited to certain AOL restrictions that I'm aware of. The default is false.

mxcheck ( <TRUE>|<FALSE> )

Specifies whether addresses passed to address() should be checked for a valid DNS entry. The default is false.

tldcheck ( <TRUE>|<FALSE> )

Specifies whether addresses passed to address() should be checked for a valid top level domains. The default is false.

address ( <ADDRESS> )

This is the primary method which determines whether an email address is valid. Its behavior is modified by the values of mxcheck(), tldcheck(), local_rules(), fqdn(), and fudge(). If the address passes all checks, the (possibly modified) address is returned as a string. Otherwise, undef is returned. In a list context, the method also returns an instance of the Mail::Address class representing the email address.

details ()

If the last call to address() returned undef, you can call this method to determine why it failed. Possible values are:


If the class is not instantiated, you can get the same information from the global $Email::Valid::Details.


Let's see if the address '' conforms to the RFC822 specification:

  print (Email::Valid->address('') ? 'yes' : 'no');

Additionally, let's make sure there's a mail host for it:

  print (Email::Valid->address( -address => '',
                                -mxcheck => 1 ) ? 'yes' : 'no');

Let's see an example of how the address may be modified:

  $addr = Email::Valid->address('Alfred Neuman <Neuman @>');
  print "$addr\n"; # prints

Now let's add the check for top level domains:

  $addr = Email::Valid->address( -address => '',
                                 -tldcheck => 1 );
  print "$addr\n"; # doesn't print anything

Need to determine why an address failed?

  unless(Email::Valid->address('maurice@hevanet')) {
    print "address failed $Email::Valid::Details check.\n";

If an error is encountered, an exception is raised. This is really only possible when performing DNS queries. Trap any exceptions by wrapping the call in an eval block:

  eval {
    $addr = Email::Valid->address( -address => '',
                                   -mxcheck => 1 );
  warn "an error was encountered: $@" if $@;


Significant portions of this module are based on the ckaddr program written by Tom Christiansen and the RFC822 address pattern developed by Jeffrey Friedl. Neither were involved in the construction of this module; all errors are mine.

Thanks very much to the following people for their suggestions and bug fixes:

  Otis Gospodnetic <>
  Kim Ryan <>
  Pete Ehlke <>
  Lupe Christoph
  David Birnbaum
  Elizabeth Mattijsen (


Mail::Address, Net::DNS, Net::Domain::TLD, perlfaq9

RFC822 - standard for the format of ARPA internet text messages. Superseded by RFC2822.


Maurice Aubrey <>


  • Alexandr Ciornii <>

  • Arne Johannessen <>

  • Dan Book <>

  • Gene Hightower <>

  • James E Keenan <>

  • Karel Miko <>

  • McA <>

  • Michael Schout <>

  • Mohammad S Anwar <>

  • Neil Bowers <>

  • Ricardo Signes <>

  • Steve Bertrand <>

  • Svetlana <>

  • Troy Morehouse <>

  • Yanick Champoux <>


This software is copyright (c) 1998 by Maurice Aubrey.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.