++ed by:
MARIOROY ASHLEYW ZMUGHAL DRAEGTUN SKIM

5 PAUSE users

Alexandra Hrefna Hilmisdóttir

NAME

Filesys::POSIX - Provide POSIX-like filesystem semantics in pure Perl

SYNOPSIS

    use Filesys::POSIX
    use Filesys::POSIX::Mem;

    my $fs = Filesys::POSIX->new(Filesys::POSIX::Mem->new,
        'noatime' => 1
    );

    $fs->umask(0700);
    $fs->mkdir('foo');

    my $fd = $fs->open('/foo/bar', $O_CREAT | $O_WRONLY);
    my $inode = $fs->fstat($fd);
    $fs->printf("I have mode 0%o\n", $inode->{'mode'});
    $fs->close($fd);

DESCRIPTION

Filesys::POSIX provides a fairly complete suite of tools comprising the semantics of a POSIX filesystem, with path resolution, mount points, inodes, a VFS, and some common utilities found in the userland. Some features not found in a normal POSIX environment include the ability to perform cross- mountpoint hard links (aliasing), mapping portions of the real filesystem into an instance of a virtual filesystem, and allowing the developer to attach and replace inodes at arbitrary points with replacements of their own specification.

Two filesystem types are provided out-of-the-box: A filesystem that lives in memory completely, and a filesystem that provides a "portal" to any given portion of the real underlying filesystem.

By and large, the manner in which data is structured is quite similar to a real kernel filesystem implementation, with some differences: VFS inodes are not created for EVERY disk inode (only mount points); inodes are not referred to numerically, but rather by Perl reference; and, directory entries can be implemented in a device-specific manner, as long as they adhere to the normal interface specified within.

INSTANTIATING THE FILESYSTEM ENVIRONMENT

Filesys::POSIX->new($rootfs, %opts)

Create a new filesystem environment, specifying a reference to an uninitialized instance of a filesystem type object to be mounted at the root of the virtual filesystem. Options passed will be passed to the filesystem initialization method $rootfs->init() in flat hash form, and passed on again to the VFS, where the options will be stored for later retrieval.

ERROR HANDLING

Errors are emitted in the form of exceptions thrown by Carp::confess(), with full stack traces. Where possible, $! is set with an appropriate error code from Errno, and a stringified $! is thrown.

SYSTEM CALLS

$fs->umask()
$fs->umask($mode)

When called without an argument, the current umask value is returned. When a value is specified, the current umask is modified to that value, and is returned once set.

$fs->stat($path)

Resolve the given path for an inode in the filesystem. If the inode found is a symlink, the path of that symlink will be resolved in turn until the desired inode is located.

Paths will be resolved relative to the current working directory when not prefixed with a slash ('/'), and will be resolved relative to the root directory when prefixed with a slash ('/').

$fs->lstat($path)

Resolve the given path for an inode in the filesystem. Unlinke $fs->stat(), the inode found will be returned literally in the case of a symlink.

$fs->fstat($fd)

Return the inode corresponding to the open file descriptor passed. An exception will be thrown by the file descriptor lookup module if the file descriptor passed does not correspond to an open file.

$fs->chdir($path)

Change the current working directory to the path specified. An $fs->stat() call will be used internally to lookup the inode for that path; an ENOTDIR will be thrown unless the inode found is a directory. The internal current working directory pointer will be updated with the directory inode found; this same inode will also be returned.

$fs->fchdir($fd)

When passed a file descriptor for a directory, update the internal pointer to the current working directory to that directory resolved from the file descriptor table, and return the same directory inode. If the inode is not a directory, an ENOTDIR will be thrown.

$fs->chown($path, $uid, $gid)

Using $fs->stat() to locate the inode of the path specified, update that inode object's 'uid' and 'gid' fields with the values specified. The inode of the file modified will be returned.

$fs->fchown($fd, $uid, $gid)

Using $fs->fstat() to locate the inode of the file descriptor specified, update that inode object's 'uid' and 'gid' fields with the values specified. A reference to the affected inode will be returned.

$fs->chmod($path, $mode)

Using $fs->stat() to locate the inode of the path specified, update that inode object's 'mode' field with the value specified. A reference to the affected inode will be returned.

$fs->fchmod($fd, $mode)

Using $fs->fstat() to locate the inode of the file descriptor specified, update that inode object's 'mode' field with the value specified. A reference to that inode will be returned.

$fs->mkdir($path)
$fs->mkdir($path, $mode)

Create a new directory at the path specified, applying the permissions field in the mode value specified. If no mode is specified, the default permissions of 0777 will be modified by the current umask value. An ENOTDIR exception will be thrown in case the intended parent of the directory to be created is not actually a directory itself.

A reference to the newly-created directory inode will be returned.

$fs->link($src, $dest)

Using $fs->stat() to resolve the path of the link source, and the parent of the link destination, $fs->link() place a reference to the source inode in the location specified by the destination.

If a destination inode already exists, it will only be able to be replaced by the source if both are either directories or non-directories. If the source and destination are both directories, the destination will only be replaced if the directory entry for the destination is empty.

Links traversing filesystem mount points are not allowed. This functionality is provided in the alias() call provided by the Filesys::POSIX::Extensions module. Upon success, a reference to the inode for which a new link is to be created will be returned.

Exceptions thrown:

  • EXDEV (Cross-device link)

    The inode resolved for the link source is not associated with the same device as the inode of the destination's parent directory.

  • EISDIR (Is a directory)

    Thrown if the source inode is a directory. Hard links can only be made for non-directory inodes.

  • EEXIST (File exists)

    Thrown if an entry at the destination path already exists.

$fs->symlink($old, $new)

The path in the first argument specified, $old, is cleaned up using Filesys::POSIX::Path->full, and stored in a new symlink inode created in the location specified by $new. An EEXIST exception will be thrown if an inode at the path indicated by $new exists. A reference to the newly-created symlink inode will be returned.

$fs->readlink($path)

Using $fs->lstat() to resolve the given path for an inode, the symlink destination path associated with the inode is returned as a string. An EINVAL exception is thrown unless the inode found is indeed a symlink.

$fs->unlink($path)

Using $fs->lstat() to resolve the given path for an inode specified, said inode will be removed from its parent directory entry. The following exceptions will be thrown in the event of certain errors:

  • ENOENT (No such file or directory)

    No entry was found in the path's parent directory for the item specified in the path.

  • EISDIR (Is a directory)

    $fs->unlink() was called with a directory specified. $fs->rmdir() must be used instead for removing directory inodes.

Upon success, a reference to the inode removed from its parent directory will be returned.

$fs->rename($old, $new)

Relocate the item specified by the $old argument to the new path specified by $new.

Using $fs->lstat, the inode for the old pathname is resolved; $fs->stat is then used to resolve the path of the parent directory of the argument specified in $new.

If an inode exists at the path specified by $new, it will be replaced by $old in the following circumstances:

Both the source $old and destination $new are non-directory inodes.
Both the source $old and destination $new are directory inodes, and the destination is empty.

The following exceptions are thrown for error conditions:

  • EPERM (Operation not permitted)

    Currently, $fs->rename() cannot operate if the inode at the old location is an inode associated with a Filesys::POSIX::Real filesystem type.

  • EXDEV (Cross-device link)

    The inode at the old path does not exist on the same filesystem device as the inode of the parent directory specified in the new path.

  • ENOTDIR (Not a directory)

    The old inode is a directory, but an existing inode found in the new path specified, is not.

  • EISDIR (Is a directory)

    The old inode is not a directory, but an existing inode found in the new path specified, is.

  • ENOTEMPTY (Directory not empty)

    Both the old and new paths correspond to a directory, but the new path is not of an empty directory.

Upon success, a reference to the inode to be renamed will be returned.

$fs->rmdir($path)

Unlinks the directory inode at the specified path. Exceptions are thrown in the following conditions:

  • ENOENT (No such file or directory)

    No inode exists by the name specified in the final component of the path in the parent directory specified in the path.

  • EBUSY (Device or resource busy)

    The directory specified is an active mount point.

  • ENOTDIR (Not a directory)

    The inode found at $path is not a directory.

  • ENOTEMPTY (Directory not empty)

    The directory is not empty.

Upon success, a reference to the inode of the directory to be removed will be returned.

$fs->mknod($path, $mode)
$fs->mknod($path, $mode, $dev)

Create a new inode at the specified $path, with the inode permissions and format specified in the $mode argument. If $mode specifies a $S_IFCHR or $S_IFBLK value, then the device number specified in $dev will be given to the new inode.

Code contained within the Filesys::POSIX distribution assumes that the device identifier shall contain the major and minor numbers in separate 16-bit fields, in the following manner:

    my $major = ($dev & 0xffff0000) >> 16;
    my $minor =  $dev & 0x0000ffff;

Returns a reference to a Filesys::POSIX::Inode object upon success.

$fs->mkfifo($path, $mode)

Create a new FIFO device at the specified $path, with the permissions listed in $mode. Internally, this function is a frontend to Filesys::POSIX->mknod.

Returns a reference to a Filesys::POSIX::Inode object upon success.

EXTENSION MODULES

Filesys::POSIX::Extensions

This module provides a variety of functions for performing inode operations in novel ways that take advantage of the unique characteristics and features of Filesys::POSIX. For example, one method is provided that allows a developer to map a file or directory from the system's underlying, actual filesystem, into any arbitrary point in the virtual filesystem.

Filesys::POSIX::Userland::Find

Provides the ability to perform breadth-first operations on file hierarchies within an instance of a Filesys::POSIX filesystem, in a subset of the functionality provided in File::Find.

Filesys::POSIX::Userland::Tar

Provides an implementation of the POSIX ustar and certain aspects of the GNU tar standard. Currently allows for the creation of tar archives based on hierarchies within a Filesys::POSIX instance.

Filesys::POSIX::Userland::Test

Provides a series of truth tests that can be performed on files and directories specified by paths.

UTILITIES

Filesys::POSIX::Path

A publicly-accessible interface for the path name string manipulation functions used by Filesys::POSIX itself.

INTERFACES

Filesys::POSIX::Directory

Lists the requirements for writing modules that act as directory structures.

Filesys::POSIX::Inode

Lists the requirements for writing modules that act as inodes.

Filesys::POSIX::Module

Provides an interface for loading methods from modules that extend Filesys::POSIX.

INTERNALS

Filesys::POSIX::Bits

A listing of bitfields and constants used in various places by Filesys::POSIX.

Filesys::POSIX::FdTable

The Filesys::POSIX implementation of the file descriptor allocation table.

Filesys::POSIX::Userland

Imported by Filesys::POSIX by default. Provides many POSIX command line tool-like functions not documented in the current manual page.

Filesys::POSIX::IO

Imported by Filesys::POSIX by default. Provides standard file manipulation routines as found in a POSIX filesystem.

Filesys::POSIX::Mount

Imported by Filesys::POSIX by default. Provides a frontend to the VFS mount point management implementation found in Filesys::POSIX::VFS.

Filesys::POSIX::VFS

Used by Filesys::POSIX, this module provides an implementation of a filesystem mount table and VFS inode resolution routines.

AUTHOR

Written by Xan Tronix <xan@cpan.org>

CONTRIBUTORS

Rikus Goodell <rikus.goodell@cpanel.net>
Brian Carlson <brian.carlson@cpanel.net>

COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 2014, cPanel, Inc. Distributed under the terms of the Perl Artistic license.