JSON::Schema::Modern::Result - Contains the result of a JSON Schema evaluation


version 0.582


  use JSON::Schema::Modern;
  my $js = JSON::Schema::Modern->new;
  my $result = $js->evaluate($data, $schema);
  my @errors = $result->errors;

  my $result_data_encoded = encode_json($result); # calls TO_JSON

  # use in numeric and boolean context
  say sprintf('got %d %ss', $result, ($result ? 'annotation' : 'error'));

  # use in string context
  say 'full results: ', $result;

  # combine two results into one:
  my $overall_result = $result1 & $result2;


This object holds the complete results of evaluating a data payload against a JSON Schema using JSON::Schema::Modern.


The object contains a boolean overload, which evaluates to the value of "valid", so you can use the result of "evaluate" in JSON::Schema::Modern in boolean context.

The object also contains a bitwise AND overload (&), for combining two results into one (the result is valid iff both inputs are valid; annotations and errors from the second argument are appended to those of the first in a new Result object).



A boolean. Indicates whether validation was successful or failed.


Returns an array of JSON::Schema::Modern::Error objects.


Returns an array of JSON::Schema::Modern::Annotation objects.


One of: flag, basic, strict_basic, detailed, verbose, terse, data_only. Defaults to basic.

  • flag returns just the result of the evaluation: either {"valid": true} or {"valid": false}.

  • basic adds the list of errors or annotations to the boolean evaluation result.

    instance_location and keyword_location are always included, as JSON pointers, describing the path to the evaluation location; absolute_keyword_location is added (as a resolved URI) whenever it is known and different from keyword_location.

  • strict_basic is like basic but follows the draft-2019-09 specification precisely, including

    replicating an error fixed in the next draft, in that instance_location and keyword_location values are provided as fragment-only URI references rather than JSON pointers.

  • terse is not described in any specification; it is like basic, but omits some redundant

    errors (for example the one for the allOf keyword that is added when any of the subschemas under allOf failed evaluation).

  • data_only returns a string, not a data structure: it contains a list of errors identified only

    by their instance_location and error message (or keyword_location, when the error occurred while loading the schema itself). This format is suitable for generating errors when the schema is not published, or for describing errors with the schema itself. This is not an official specification format and may change slightly over time, as it is tested in production environments.


A boolean flag indicating whether "format" should include annotations in the output. Defaults to true.


Indicates that evaluation stopped due to a severe error.

A tuple, consisting of [ integer, string ], indicating the recommended HTTP response code and string to use for this result (if validating an HTTP request). This could exist for things like a failed authentication check in OpenAPI validation, in which case it would contain [ 401, 'Unauthorized' ].

Only populated when there are errors; when not explicitly set by an evaluator, defaults to [ 500, 'Internal Server Error' ] if any errors indicate an exception, and [ 400, <first error string> ] otherwise. The exact error string is hidden in the case of 500 errors because you should not leak internal issues with your application, but you may also wish to obfuscate normal validation errors, in which case you should check for 400 and change the string to 'Bad Request'.



Returns a data structure suitable for serialization; requires one argument specifying the output format to use, which corresponds to the formats documented in The only supported formats at this time are flag, basic, strict_basic, and terse.


Calls "format" with the style configured in "output_format".


Returns the number of annotations when the result is true, or the number of errors when the result is false.


When provided with another result object, returns a new object with the combination of all results. See & at "OVERLOADS".


Returns a JSON string representing the result object, using the requested "format", according to the specification.


Results (and their contained errors and annotations) can be serialized in a number of ways.

Results have defined "output_format"s, which can be generated as nested unblessed hashes/arrays and are suitable for serializing using a JSON encoder for use in another application. A JSON string of the result can be obtained directly using "dump".

If it is preferable to omit direct references to the schema (for example in an application where the schema is not published), but still convey some semantic information about the nature of the errors, stringify the object directly. This also means that result objects can be thrown as exceptions, or embedded in error messages.

If you are embedding the full result inside another data structure, perhaps to be serialized to JSON (or another format) later on, use "TO_JSON" or "format".


Bugs may be submitted through

I am also usually active on irc, as 'ether' at and

You can also find me on the JSON Schema Slack server and OpenAPI Slack server, which are also great resources for finding help.


Karen Etheridge <>


This software is copyright (c) 2020 by Karen Etheridge.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.