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NAME

MCE::Shared - MCE extension for sharing data supporting threads and processes

VERSION

This document describes MCE::Shared version 1.826

SYNOPSIS

   # OO construction.

   use MCE::Shared;

   my $ar = MCE::Shared->array( @list );
   my $ca = MCE::Shared->cache( max_keys => 500, max_age => 60 );
   my $cv = MCE::Shared->condvar( 0 );
   my $fh = MCE::Shared->handle( '>>', \*STDOUT );
   my $ha = MCE::Shared->hash( @pairs );
   my $oh = MCE::Shared->ordhash( @pairs );
   my $db = MCE::Shared->minidb();
   my $qu = MCE::Shared->queue( await => 1, fast => 0 );
   my $va = MCE::Shared->scalar( $value );
   my $se = MCE::Shared->sequence( $begin, $end, $step, $fmt );
   my $ob = MCE::Shared->share( $blessed_object );

   # Open function available since 1.002.

   mce_open my $fh, ">", "/foo/bar.log" or die "open error: $!";

   # Tie construction. The module option, available since 1.825.

   use v5.10;
   use MCE::Flow;
   use MCE::Shared;

   my %args  = ( max_keys => 500, max_age => 60 );
   my @pairs = ( foo => 'bar', woo => 'baz' );
   my @list  = ( 'a' .. 'z' );

   tie my $va1, 'MCE::Shared', { module => 'MCE::Shared::Scalar' }, 'foo';
   tie my @ar1, 'MCE::Shared', { module => 'MCE::Shared::Array' }, @list;
   tie my %ca1, 'MCE::Shared', { module => 'MCE::Shared::Cache' }, %args;
   tie my %ha1, 'MCE::Shared', { module => 'MCE::Shared::Hash' }, @pairs;
   tie my %oh1, 'MCE::Shared', { module => 'MCE::Shared::Ordhash' }, @pairs;
   tie my %oh2, 'MCE::Shared', { module => 'Hash::Ordered' }, @pairs;
   tie my %oh3, 'MCE::Shared', { module => 'Tie::IxHash' }, @pairs;
   tie my $cy1, 'MCE::Shared', { module => 'Tie::Cycle' }, [ 1 .. 8 ];

   tie my @ary, 'MCE::Shared', qw( a list of values );
   tie my %ca,  'MCE::Shared', { max_keys => 500, max_age => 60 };
   tie my %ha,  'MCE::Shared', key1 => 'val1', key2 => 'val2';
   tie my %oh,  'MCE::Shared', { ordered => 1 }, key1 => 'value';

   tie my $cnt, 'MCE::Shared', 0;
   tie my @foo, 'MCE::Shared';
   tie my %bar, 'MCE::Shared';

   my $mutex = MCE::Mutex->new;

   mce_flow {
      max_workers => 4
   },
   sub {
      my ( $mce ) = @_;
      my ( $pid, $wid ) = ( MCE->pid, MCE->wid );

      ## Locking is required when multiple workers update the same element.
      ## This requires 2 trips to the manager process (fetch and store).

      $mutex->synchronize( sub {
         $cnt += 1;
      });

      ## Locking is not necessary when updating unique elements.

      $foo[ $wid - 1 ] = $pid;
      $bar{ $pid }     = $wid;

      return;
   };

   say "scalar : $cnt";
   say " array : $_" for (@foo);
   say "  hash : $_ => $bar{$_}" for (sort keys %bar);

   # Output

   scalar : 4
    array : 37847
    array : 37848
    array : 37849
    array : 37850
     hash : 37847 => 1
     hash : 37848 => 2
     hash : 37849 => 3
     hash : 37850 => 4

DESCRIPTION

This module provides data sharing capabilities for MCE supporting threads and processes. MCE::Hobo provides threads-like parallelization for running code asynchronously.

EXTRA FUNCTIONALITY

MCE::Shared enables extra functionality on systems with IO::FDPass installed. Without it, MCE::Shared is unable to send file descriptors to the shared-manager process. The use of IO::FDPass applies to Condvar, Queue and Handle (mce_open). IO::FDpass isn't used for anything else.

   use MCE::Shared;

   # One may want to start the shared-manager early.

   MCE::Shared->start();

   # Typically, the shared-manager is started automatically when
   # constructing a shared object.

   my $ca = MCE::Shared->cache( max_keys => 500 );

   # IO::FDPass is necessary for constructing a shared condvar or queue
   # while the manager is running in order to send file descriptors
   # associated with the object.

   # Workers block using a socket handle for ->wait and ->timedwait.

   my $cv = MCE::Shared->condvar();

   # Workers block using a socket handle for ->dequeue and ->await.

   my $q1 = MCE::Shared->queue();
   my $q2 = MCE::Shared->queue( await => 1 );

For platforms where IO::FDPass isn't possible, construct condvar and queue before other classes. The manager process is delayed until sharing other classes or started explicitly.

   use MCE::Shared;

   my $has_IO_FDPass = $INC{'IO/FDPass.pm'} ? 1 : 0;

   my $cv  = MCE::Shared->condvar( 0 );
   my $que = MCE::Shared->queue( fast => 1 );

   MCE::Shared->start() unless $has_IO_FDPass;

   my $ha = MCE::Shared->hash();  # started implicitly

Note: MCE starts the shared-manager if not yet started. Ditto for MCE::Hobo.

Regarding mce_open, IO::FDPass is needed for constructing a shared-handle from a non-shared handle not yet available inside the shared-manager process. The workaround is to have the non-shared handle made before the shared-manager is started. Passing a file by reference is fine for the three STD* handles.

   # The shared-manager knows of \*STDIN, \*STDOUT, \*STDERR.

   mce_open my $shared_in,  "<",  \*STDIN;   # ok
   mce_open my $shared_out, ">>", \*STDOUT;  # ok
   mce_open my $shared_err, ">>", \*STDERR;  # ok
   mce_open my $shared_fh1, "<",  "/path/to/sequence.fasta";  # ok
   mce_open my $shared_fh2, ">>", "/path/to/results.log";     # ok

   mce_open my $shared_fh, ">>", \*NON_SHARED_FH;  # requires IO::FDPass

The IO::FDPass module is known to work reliably on most platforms. Install 1.1 or later to rid of limitations described above.

   perl -MIO::FDPass -le "print 'Cheers! Perl has IO::FDPass.'"

DATA SHARING

Below, synopsis for sharing classes included with MCE::Shared.

   # short form

   use MCE::Shared;

   $ar = MCE::Shared->array( @list );
   $ca = MCE::Shared->cache( max_keys => 500, max_age => 60 );
   $cv = MCE::Shared->condvar( 0 );
   $fh = MCE::Shared->handle( ">>", \*STDOUT ); # see mce_open below
   $ha = MCE::Shared->hash( @pairs );
   $oh = MCE::Shared->ordhash( @pairs );
   $db = MCE::Shared->minidb();
   $qu = MCE::Shared->queue( await => 1, fast => 0 );
   $va = MCE::Shared->scalar( $value );
   $se = MCE::Shared->sequence( $begin, $end, $step, $fmt );

   mce_open my $fh, ">>", \*STDOUT or die "open error: $!";

   # long form, must include class module

   use MCE::Shared::Array;
   use MCE::Shared::Cache;
   use MCE::Shared::Hash;
   use MCE::Shared::Minidb;
   use MCE::Shared::Ordhash;
   use MCE::Shared::Queue;
   use MCE::Shared::Scalar;

   $ar = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Array->new( ... ) );
   $ca = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Cache->new( ... ) );
   $ha = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Hash->new( ... ) );
   $db = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Minidb->new( ... ) );
   $oh = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Ordhash->new( ... ) );
   $qu = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Queue->new( ... ) );
   $va = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Scalar->new( ... ) );

The restriction for sharing classes not included with MCE::Shared is that the object must not have file-handles nor code-blocks.

   use Hash::Ordered;

   $oh = MCE::Shared->share( Hash::Ordered->new( ... ) );
open ( filehandle, expr )
open ( filehandle, mode, expr )
open ( filehandle, mode, reference )

In version 1.002 and later, constructs a new object by opening the file whose filename is given by expr, and associates it with filehandle. When omitting error checking at the application level, MCE::Shared emits a message and stop if open fails.

See MCE::Shared::Handle for chunk IO demonstrations.

   # non-shared or local construction for use by a single process

   use MCE::Shared::Handle;

   MCE::Shared::Handle->open( my $fh, "<", "file.log" ) or die "$!";
   MCE::Shared::Handle::open  my $fh, "<", "file.log"   or die "$!";

   mce_open my $fh, "<", "file.log" or die "$!";

   # construction for sharing with other threads and processes

   use MCE::Shared;

   MCE::Shared->open( my $fh, "<", "file.log" ) or die "$!";
   MCE::Shared::open  my $fh, "<", "file.log"   or die "$!";

   mce_open my $fh, "<", "file.log" or die "$!";

Simple examples to open a file for reading:

   # mce_open is exported by MCE::Shared or MCE::Shared::Handle.
   # It creates a shared file handle with MCE::Shared present
   # or a non-shared handle otherwise.

   mce_open my $fh, "< input.txt"     or die "open error: $!";
   mce_open my $fh, "<", "input.txt"  or die "open error: $!";
   mce_open my $fh, "<", \*STDIN      or die "open error: $!";

and for writing:

   mce_open my $fh, "> output.txt"    or die "open error: $!";
   mce_open my $fh, ">", "output.txt" or die "open error: $!";
   mce_open my $fh, ">", \*STDOUT     or die "open error: $!";
num_sequence

num_sequence is an alias for sequence.

DEEPLY SHARING

The following is a demonstration for a shared tied-hash variable. Before venturing into the actual code, notice the dump function making a call to export explicitly for objects of type MCE::Shared::Object. This is necessary in order to retrieve the data from the shared-manager process.

The export method is described later under the Common API section.

   sub _dump {
      require Data::Dumper unless $INC{'Data/Dumper.pm'};
      no warnings 'once';

      local $Data::Dumper::Varname  = 'VAR';
      local $Data::Dumper::Deepcopy = 1;
      local $Data::Dumper::Indent   = 1;
      local $Data::Dumper::Purity   = 1;
      local $Data::Dumper::Sortkeys = 0;
      local $Data::Dumper::Terse    = 0;

      ( ref $_[0] eq 'MCE::Shared::Object' )
         ? print Data::Dumper::Dumper( $_[0]->export ) . "\n"
         : print Data::Dumper::Dumper( $_[0] ) . "\n";
   }

   use MCE::Shared;

   tie my %abc, 'MCE::Shared';

   my @parents = qw( a b c );
   my @children = qw( 1 2 3 4 );

   for my $parent ( @parents ) {
      for my $child ( @children ) {
         $abc{ $parent }{ $child } = 1;
      }
   }

   _dump( tied( %abc ) );

   # Output

   $VAR1 = bless( {
     'c' => bless( {
       '1' => '1',
       '4' => '1',
       '3' => '1',
       '2' => '1'
     }, 'MCE::Shared::Hash' ),
     'a' => bless( {
       '1' => '1',
       '4' => '1',
       '3' => '1',
       '2' => '1'
     }, 'MCE::Shared::Hash' ),
     'b' => bless( {
       '1' => '1',
       '4' => '1',
       '3' => '1',
       '2' => '1'
     }, 'MCE::Shared::Hash' )
   }, 'MCE::Shared::Hash' );

Dereferencing provides hash-like behavior for hash and ordhash. Array-like behavior is allowed for array, not shown below.

   use MCE::Shared;

   my $abc = MCE::Shared->hash;

   my @parents = qw( a b c );
   my @children = qw( 1 2 3 4 );

   for my $parent ( @parents ) {
      for my $child ( @children ) {
         $abc->{ $parent }{ $child } = 1;
      }
   }

   _dump( $abc );

Each level in a deeply structure requires a separate trip to the shared-manager process. The included MCE::Shared::Minidb module provides optimized methods for working with hash of hashes HoH and/or hash of arrays HoA. As such, do the following when performance is desired.

   use MCE::Shared;

   my $abc = MCE::Shared->minidb;

   my @parents = qw( a b c );
   my @children = qw( 1 2 3 4 );

   for my $parent ( @parents ) {
      for my $child ( @children ) {
         $abc->hset( $parent, $child, 1 );
      }
   }

   _dump( $abc );

For further reading, see MCE::Shared::Minidb.

OBJECT SHARING

share

This class method transfers the blessed-object to the shared-manager process and returns a MCE::Shared::Object containing the SHARED_ID. For classes not included with MCE::Shared, the object must not contain any GLOB's or CODE_REF's or the transfer will fail.

   use MCE::Shared;
   use MCE::Shared::Ordhash;

   my $oh1 = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Ordhash->new() );
   my $oh2 = MCE::Shared->ordhash();       # same thing

   $oh1->assign( @pairs );
   $oh2->assign( @pairs );

   use Hash::Ordered;

   my ($ho_shared, $ho_nonshared);

   $ho_shared = MCE::Shared->share( Hash::Ordered->new() );
   $ho_shared->push( @pairs );

   $ho_nonshared = $ho_shared->export();   # back to non-shared
   $ho_nonshared = $ho_shared->destroy();  # including destruction

The following provides long and short forms for constructing a shared array, hash, or scalar object.

   use MCE::Shared;

   use MCE::Shared::Array;    # Loading helper classes is not necessary
   use MCE::Shared::Hash;     # when using the shorter form.
   use MCE::Shared::Scalar;

   my $a1 = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Array->new( @list ) );
   my $a3 = MCE::Shared->share( [ @list ] );  # sugar syntax
   my $a2 = MCE::Shared->array( @list );

   my $h1 = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Hash->new( @pairs ) );
   my $h3 = MCE::Shared->share( { @pairs } ); # sugar syntax
   my $h2 = MCE::Shared->hash( @pairs );

   my $s1 = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Scalar->new( 20 ) );
   my $s2 = MCE::Shared->share( \do{ my $o = 20 } );
   my $s4 = MCE::Shared->scalar( 20 );

PDL SHARING

  • pdl_byte

  • pdl_short

  • pdl_ushort

  • pdl_long

  • pdl_longlong

  • pdl_float

  • pdl_double

  • pdl_ones

  • pdl_sequence

  • pdl_zeroes

  • pdl_indx

  • pdl

pdl_byte, pdl_short, pdl_ushort, pdl_long, pdl_longlong, pdl_float, pdl_double, pdl_ones, pdl_sequence, pdl_zeroes, pdl_indx, and pdl are sugar syntax for PDL construction take place under the shared-manager process.

   use PDL;                 # must load PDL before MCE::Shared
   use MCE::Shared;

   # makes extra copy/transfer and unnecessary destruction
   my $ob1 = MCE::Shared->share( zeroes( 256, 256 ) );

   # do this instead, efficient
   my $ob1 = MCE::Shared->zeroes( 256, 256 );
ins_inplace

The ins_inplace method applies to shared PDL objects. It supports three forms for writing elements back to the PDL object, residing under the shared-manager process.

   # --- action taken by the shared-manager process
   # ins_inplace(  1 arg  ):  ins( inplace( $this ), $what, 0, 0 );
   # ins_inplace(  2 args ):  $this->slice( $arg1 ) .= $arg2;
   # ins_inplace( >2 args ):  ins( inplace( $this ), $what, @coords );

   # --- use case
   $o->ins_inplace( $result );                    #  1 arg
   $o->ins_inplace( ":,$start:$stop", $result );  #  2 args
   $o->ins_inplace( $result, 0, $seq_n );         # >2 args

Operations such as + 5 will not work on shared PDL objects. At this time, the OO interface is the only mechanism for communicating with the PDL piddle. For example, call slice, sever, or copy to fetch elements. Call ins_inplace to update elements.

   # make a shared PDL piddle
   my $b = MCE::Shared->pdl_sequence(20,20);

   # fetch, add 10 to row 2 only
   my $res1 = $b->slice(":,1:1") + 10;
   $b->ins_inplace($res1, 0, 1);

   # fetch, add 10 to rows 4 and 5
   my $res2 = $b->slice(":,3:4") + 10;
   $b->ins_inplace($res2, 0, 3);

   # make non-shared object, export-destroy the shared object
   $b = $b->destroy;

   print "$b\n";

The following provides parallel demonstrations using MCE::Flow.

   use PDL;  # must load PDL before MCE::Shared

   use MCE::Flow;
   use MCE::Shared;

   my $a = MCE::Shared->pdl_sequence(20,20);
   my $b = MCE::Shared->pdl_zeroes(20,20);

   # with chunking disabled

   mce_flow_s {
      max_workers => 4, chunk_size => 1
   },
   sub {
      my $row = $_;
      my $result = $a->slice(":,$row:$row") + 5;
      $b->ins_inplace($result, 0, $row);
   }, 0, 20 - 1;

   # with chunking enabled

   mce_flow_s {
      max_workers => 4, chunk_size => 5, bounds_only => 1
   },
   sub {
      my ($row1, $row2) = @{ $_ };
      my $result = $a->slice(":,$row1:$row2") + 5;
      $b->ins_inplace($result, 0, $row1);
   }, 0, 20 - 1;

   # make non-shared object, export-destroy the shared object

   $b = $b->destroy;

   print "$b\n";

See also PDL::ParallelCPU and PDL::Parallel::threads. For further reading, the MCE-Cookbook on Github provides two PDL demonstrations.

https://github.com/marioroy/mce-cookbook

COMMON API

blessed

Returns the real blessed name, provided by the shared-manager process.

   use Scalar::Util qw(blessed);
   use MCE::Shared;

   use MCE::Shared::Ordhash;
   use Hash::Ordered;

   my $oh1 = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Ordhash->new() );
   my $oh2 = MCE::Shared->share( Hash::Ordered->new() );

   print blessed($oh1), "\n";    # MCE::Shared::Object
   print blessed($oh2), "\n";    # MCE::Shared::Object

   print $oh1->blessed(), "\n";  # MCE::Shared::Ordhash
   print $oh2->blessed(), "\n";  # Hash::Ordered
destroy ( { unbless => 1 } )
destroy

Exports optionally, but destroys the shared object entirely from the shared-manager process. The unbless option is passed to export.

   my $exported_ob = $shared_ob->destroy();

   $shared_ob;     # becomes undef
export ( { unbless => 1 }, keys )
export

Exports the shared object as a non-shared object. One must export the shared object when passing into any dump routine. Otherwise, the shared_id value and blessed name is all one will see. The unbless option unblesses any shared Array, Hash, and Scalar object to a non-blessed array, hash, and scalar respectively.

   use MCE::Shared;
   use MCE::Shared::Ordhash;

   sub _dump {
      require Data::Dumper unless $INC{'Data/Dumper.pm'};
      no warnings 'once';

      local $Data::Dumper::Varname  = 'VAR';
      local $Data::Dumper::Deepcopy = 1;
      local $Data::Dumper::Indent   = 1;
      local $Data::Dumper::Purity   = 1;
      local $Data::Dumper::Sortkeys = 0;
      local $Data::Dumper::Terse    = 0;

      print Data::Dumper::Dumper($_[0]) . "\n";
   }

   my $oh1 = MCE::Shared->share( MCE::Shared::Ordhash->new() );
   my $oh2 = MCE::Shared->ordhash();  # same thing

   _dump($oh1);
      # bless( [ 1, 'MCE::Shared::Ordhash' ], 'MCE::Shared::Object' )

   _dump($oh2);
      # bless( [ 2, 'MCE::Shared::Ordhash' ], 'MCE::Shared::Object' )

   _dump( $oh1->export );  # dumps object structure and content
   _dump( $oh2->export );

export can optionally take a list of indices/keys for what to export. This applies to shared array, hash, and ordhash.

   use MCE::Shared;

   my $h1 = MCE::Shared->hash(           # shared hash
      qw/ I Heard The Bluebirds Sing by Marty Robbins /
        # k v     k   v         k    v  k     v
   );

   my $h2 = $h1->export( qw/ I The / );  # non-shared hash

   _dump($h2);

   # Output

   $VAR1 = bless( {
     'I' => 'Heard',
     'The' => 'Bluebirds'
   }, 'MCE::Shared::Hash' );

Specifying the unbless option exports a non-blessed data structure instead. Unbless applies to shared MCE::Shared::{ Array, Hash, and Scalar } objects.

   my $h2 = $h1->export( { unbless => 1 }, qw/ I The / );
   my $h3 = $h1->export( { unbless => 1 } );

   _dump($h2);
   _dump($h3);

   # Output

   $VAR1 = {
     'The' => 'Bluebirds',
     'I' => 'Heard'
   };

   $VAR1 = {
     'Marty' => 'Robbins',
     'Sing' => 'by',
     'The' => 'Bluebirds',
     'I' => 'Heard'
   };
next

The next method provides parallel iteration between workers for shared array, hash, ordhash, and sequence. In list context, returns the next key-value pair. This applies to array, hash, and ordhash. In scalar context, returns the next item. The undef value is returned after iteration has completed.

Internally, the list of keys to return is set when the closure is constructed. Later keys added to the shared array or hash are not included. Subsequently, the undef value is returned for deleted keys.

The following example iterates through a shared array in parallel.

   use MCE::Hobo;
   use MCE::Shared;

   my $ob = MCE::Shared->array( 'a' .. 'j' );

   sub demo1 {
      my ( $id ) = @_;
      while ( my ( $index, $value ) = $ob->next ) {
         print "$id: [ $index ] $value\n";
         sleep 1;
      }
   }

   sub demo2 {
      my ( $id ) = @_;
      while ( defined ( my $value = $ob->next ) ) {
         print "$id: $value\n";
         sleep 1;
      }
   }

   MCE::Hobo->new( \&demo2, $_ ) for 1 .. 3;

   # ... do other work ...

   MCE::Hobo->waitall();

   # Output

   1: a
   2: b
   3: c
   2: f
   1: d
   3: e
   2: g
   3: i
   1: h
   2: j

The form is similar for sequence. For large sequences, the bounds_only option is recommended. Also, specify chunk_size accordingly. This reduces the amount of traffic to and from the shared-manager process.

   use MCE::Hobo;
   use MCE::Shared;

   my $N   = shift || 4_000_000;
   my $pi  = MCE::Shared->scalar( 0.0 );

   my $seq = MCE::Shared->sequence(
      { chunk_size => 200_000, bounds_only => 1 }, 0, $N - 1
   );

   sub compute_pi {
      my ( $wid ) = @_;

      while ( my ( $beg, $end ) = $seq->next ) {
         my ( $_pi, $t ) = ( 0.0 );
         for my $i ( $beg .. $end ) {
            $t = ( $i + 0.5 ) / $N;
            $_pi += 4.0 / ( 1.0 + $t * $t );
         }
         $pi->incrby( $_pi );
      }

      return;
   }

   MCE::Hobo->create( \&compute_pi, $_ ) for ( 1 .. 8 );

   # ... do other stuff ...

   MCE::Hobo->waitall();

   printf "pi = %0.13f\n", $pi->get / $N;

   # Output

   3.1415926535898
rewind ( index, [, index, ... ] )
rewind ( key, [, key, ... ] )
rewind ( "query string" )

Rewinds the parallel iterator for MCE::Shared::Array, MCE::Shared::Hash, or MCE::Shared::Ordhash when no arguments are given. Otherwise, resets the iterator with given criteria. The syntax for query string is described in the shared module.

   # array
   $ar->rewind;

   $ar->rewind( 0, 1 );
   $ar->rewind( "val eq some_value" );
   $ar->rewind( "key >= 50 :AND val =~ /sun|moon|air|wind/" );
   $ar->rewind( "val eq sun :OR val eq moon :OR val eq foo" );
   $ar->rewind( "key =~ /$pattern/" );

   while ( my ( $index, $value ) = $ar->next ) {
      ...
   }

   # hash, ordhash
   $oh->rewind;

   $oh->rewind( "key1", "key2" );
   $oh->rewind( "val eq some_value" );
   $oh->rewind( "key eq some_key :AND val =~ /sun|moon|air|wind/" );
   $oh->rewind( "val eq sun :OR val eq moon :OR val eq foo" );
   $oh->rewind( "key =~ /$pattern/" );

   while ( my ( $key, $value ) = $oh->next ) {
      ...
   }
rewind ( { options }, begin, end [, step, format ] )
rewind ( begin, end [, step, format ] )

Rewinds the parallel iterator for MCE::Shared::Sequence when no arguments are given. Otherwise, resets the iterator with given criteria.

   $seq->rewind;

   $seq->rewind( { chunk_size => 10, bounds_only => 1 }, 1, 100 );

   while ( my ( $beg, $end ) = $seq->next ) {
      for my $i ( $beg .. $end ) {
         ...
      }
   }

   $seq->rewind( 1, 100 );

   while ( defined ( my $num = $seq->next ) ) {
      ...
   }
store ( key, value )

Deep-sharing a non-blessed structure recursively is possible with store, an alias to STORE.

   use MCE::Shared;

   my $h1 = MCE::Shared->hash();
   my $h2 = MCE::Shared->hash();

   # auto-shares deeply
   $h1->store( 'key', [ 0, 2, 5, { 'foo' => 'bar' } ] );
   $h2->{key}[3]{foo} = 'baz';   # via auto-vivification

   my $v1 = $h1->get('key')->get(3)->get('foo');  # bar
   my $v2 = $h2->get('key')->get(3)->get('foo');  # baz
   my $v3 = $h2->{key}[3]{foo};                   # baz

SERVER API

init

This method is called automatically by each MCE or Hobo worker immediately after being spawned. The effect is extra parallelism during inter-process communication. The optional ID (an integer) is modded internally in a round-robin fashion.

   MCE::Shared->init();
   MCE::Shared->init( ID );
start

Starts the shared-manager process. This is done automatically.

   MCE::Shared->start();
stop

Stops the shared-manager process, wiping all shared data content. This is called by the END block automatically when the script terminates.

   MCE::Shared->stop();

LOCKING

Application-level advisory locking is possible with MCE::Mutex.

   use MCE::Hobo;
   use MCE::Mutex;
   use MCE::Shared;

   my $mutex = MCE::Mutex->new();

   tie my $cntr, 'MCE::Shared', 0;

   sub work {
      for ( 1 .. 1000 ) {
         $mutex->lock;

         # The next statement involves 2 IPC ops ( get and set ).
         # Thus, locking is required.
         $cntr++;

         $mutex->unlock;
      }
   }

   MCE::Hobo->create('work') for ( 1 .. 8 );

   MCE::Hobo->waitall;

   print $cntr, "\n"; # 8000

However, locking is not necessary when using the OO interface. This is possible as MCE::Shared is implemented using a single-point of entry for commands sent to the shared-manager process. Furthermore, the shared classes include sugar methods for combining set and get in a single operation.

   use MCE::Hobo;
   use MCE::Shared;

   my $cntr = MCE::Shared->scalar( 0 );

   sub work {
      for ( 1 .. 1000 ) {
         # The next statement increments the value without having
         # to call set and get explicitly.
         $cntr->incr;
      }
   }

   MCE::Hobo->create('work') for ( 1 .. 8 );

   MCE::Hobo->waitall;

   print $cntr->get, "\n"; # 8000

Another possibility when running threads is locking via threads::shared.

   use threads;
   use threads::shared;

   use MCE::Flow;
   use MCE::Shared;

   my $mutex : shared;

   tie my $cntr, 'MCE::Shared', 0;

   sub work {
      for ( 1 .. 1000 ) {
         lock $mutex;

         # the next statement involves 2 IPC ops ( get and set )
         # thus, locking is required
         $cntr++;
      }
   }

   MCE::Flow->run( { max_workers => 8 }, \&work );

   MCE::Flow->finish;

   print $cntr, "\n"; # 8000

Of the three demonstrations, the OO interface yields the best performance. This is from the lack of locking at the application level. The results were obtained from a MacBook Pro (Haswell) running at 2.6 GHz, 1600 MHz RAM.

   CentOS 7.2 VM

      -- Perl v5.16.3
      MCE::Mutex .... : 0.528 secs.
      OO Interface .. : 0.062 secs.
      threads::shared : 0.545 secs.

   FreeBSD 10.0 VM

      -- Perl v5.16.3
      MCE::Mutex .... : 0.367 secs.
      OO Interface .. : 0.083 secs.
      threads::shared : 0.593 secs.

   Mac OS X 10.11.6 ( Host OS )

      -- Perl v5.18.2
      MCE::Mutex .... : 0.397 secs.
      OO Interface .. : 0.070 secs.
      threads::shared : 0.463 secs.

   Solaris 11.2 VM

      -- Perl v5.12.5 installed with the OS
      MCE::Mutex .... : 0.895 secs.
      OO Interface .. : 0.099 secs.
      threads::shared :              Perl not built to support threads

      -- Perl v5.22.2 built with threads support
      MCE::Mutex .... : 0.788 secs.
      OO Interface .. : 0.086 secs.
      threads::shared : 0.895 secs.

   Windows 7 VM

      -- Perl v5.22.2
      MCE::Mutex .... : 1.045 secs.
      OO Interface .. : 0.312 secs.
      threads::shared : 1.061 secs.

Beginning with MCE::Shared 1.809, the pipeline method provides another way. Included in Array, Cache, Hash, Minidb, and Ordhash, it combines multiple commands for the object to be processed serially. For shared objects, the call is made atomically due to single IPC to the shared-manager process.

The pipeline method is fully wantarray-aware and receives a list of commands and their arguments. In scalar or list context, it returns data from the last command in the pipeline.

   use MCE::Mutex;
   use MCE::Shared;

   my $mutex = MCE::Mutex->new();
   my $oh = MCE::Shared->ordhash();
   my @vals;

   # mutex locking

   $mutex->lock;
   $oh->set( foo => "a_a" );
   $oh->set( bar => "b_b" );
   $oh->set( baz => "c_c" );
   @vals = $oh->mget( qw/ foo bar baz / );
   $mutex->unlock;

   # pipeline, same thing done atomically

   @vals = $oh->pipeline(
      [ "set", foo => "a_a" ],
      [ "set", bar => "b_b" ],
      [ "set", baz => "c_c" ],
      [ "mget", qw/ foo bar baz / ]
   );

   # ( "a_a", "b_b", "c_c" )

There is also pipeline_ex, same as pipeline, but returns data for every command in the pipeline.

   @vals = $oh->pipeline_ex(
      [ "set", foo => "a_a" ],
      [ "set", bar => "b_b" ],
      [ "set", baz => "c_c" ]
   );

   # ( "a_a", "b_b", "c_c" )

REQUIREMENTS

MCE::Shared requires Perl 5.10.1 or later. The IO::FDPass module is highly recommended on UNIX and Windows. This module does not install it by default.

SOURCE AND FURTHER READING

The source, cookbook, and examples are hosted at GitHub.

INDEX

MCE, MCE::Hobo

AUTHOR

Mario E. Roy, <marioeroy AT gmail DOT com>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright (C) 2016-2017 by Mario E. Roy

MCE::Shared is released under the same license as Perl.

See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.