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Mario Roy
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NAME

MCE::Shared::Condvar - Condvar helper class

VERSION

This document describes MCE::Shared::Condvar version 1.844

DESCRIPTION

This helper class for MCE::Shared provides a Scalar, Mutex, and primitives for conditional locking.

SYNOPSIS

 use MCE::Shared;

 my $cv = MCE::Shared->condvar( 0 );

 # OO interface

 $val = $cv->set( $val );
 $val = $cv->get();
 $len = $cv->len();

 # conditional locking primitives

 $cv->lock();
 $cv->unlock();
 $cv->broadcast(0.05);     # delay before broadcasting
 $cv->broadcast();
 $cv->signal(0.05);        # delay before signaling
 $cv->signal();
 $cv->timedwait(2.5);
 $cv->wait();

 # included, sugar methods without having to call set/get explicitly

 $val = $cv->append( $string );     #   $val .= $string
 $val = $cv->decr();                # --$val
 $val = $cv->decrby( $number );     #   $val -= $number
 $val = $cv->getdecr();             #   $val--
 $val = $cv->getincr();             #   $val++
 $val = $cv->incr();                # ++$val
 $val = $cv->incrby( $number );     #   $val += $number
 $old = $cv->getset( $new );        #   $o = $v, $v = $n, $o

EXAMPLE

The following example demonstrates barrier synchronization.

 use MCE;
 use MCE::Shared;
 use Time::HiRes qw(usleep);

 my $num_workers = 8;
 my $count = MCE::Shared->condvar(0);
 my $state = MCE::Shared->scalar('ready');

 my $microsecs = ( $^O =~ /mswin|mingw|msys|cygwin/i ) ? 0 : 200;

 # The lock is released upon entering ->broadcast, ->signal, ->timedwait,
 # and ->wait. For performance reasons, the condition variable is *not*
 # re-locked prior to exiting the call. Therefore, obtain the lock when
 # synchronization is desired subsequently.

 sub barrier_sync {
    usleep($microsecs) while $state->get eq 'down';

    $count->lock;
    $state->set('up'), $count->incr;

    if ($count->get == $num_workers) {
       $count->decr, $state->set('down');
       $count->broadcast;
    }
    else {
       $count->wait while $state->get eq 'up';
       $count->lock;
       $state->set('ready') if $count->decr == 0;
       $count->unlock;
    }
 }

 sub user_func {
    my $id = MCE->wid;
    for (1 .. 400) {
       MCE->print("$_: $id\n");
       barrier_sync();  # made possible by MCE::Shared::Condvar
     # MCE->sync();     # same thing via the MCE-Core API
    }
 }

 my $mce = MCE->new(
    max_workers => $num_workers,
    user_func   => \&user_func
 )->run;

 # Time taken from a 2.6 GHz machine running Mac OS X.
 # threads::shared:   0.207s  Perl threads
 #   forks::shared:  36.426s  child processes
 #     MCE::Shared:   0.353s  child processes
 #        MCE Sync:   0.062s  child processes

API DOCUMENTATION

MCE::Shared::Condvar->new ( )

Called by MCE::Shared for constructing a shared-condvar object.

MCE::Shared->condvar ( [ value ] )

Constructs a new condition variable. Its value defaults to 0 when value is not specified.

 use MCE::Shared;

 $cv = MCE::Shared->condvar( 100 );
 $cv = MCE::Shared->condvar;

set ( value )

Sets the value associated with the cv object. The new value is returned in scalar context.

 $val = $cv->set( 10 );
 $cv->set( 10 );

get

Returns the value associated with the cv object.

 $val = $cv->get;

len

Returns the length of the value. It returns the undef value if the value is not defined.

 $len = $var->len;

lock

Attempts to grab the lock and waits if not available. Multiple calls to $cv-lock> by the same process or thread is safe. The mutex will remain locked until $cv-unlock> is called.

 $cv->lock;

unlock

Releases the lock. A held lock by an exiting process or thread is released automatically.

 $cv->unlock;

signal ( [ floating_seconds ] )

Releases a held lock on the variable. Then, unblocks one process or thread that's waiting on that variable. The variable is *not* locked upon return.

Optionally, delay floating_seconds before signaling.

 $count->signal;
 $count->signal( 0.5 );

broadcast ( [ floating_seconds ] )

The broadcast method works similarly to signal. It releases a held lock on the variable. Then, unblocks all the processes or threads that are blocked in a condition wait on the variable, rather than only one. The variable is *not* locked upon return.

Optionally, delay floating_seconds before broadcasting.

 $count->broadcast;
 $count->broadcast( 0.5 );

wait

Releases a held lock on the variable. Then, waits until another thread does a signal or broadcast for the same variable. The variable is *not* locked upon return.

 $count->wait() while $state->get() eq "bar";

timedwait ( floating_seconds )

Releases a held lock on the variable. Then, waits until another thread does a signal or broadcast for the same variable or if the timeout exceeds floating_seconds.

A false value is returned if the timeout is reached, and a true value otherwise. In either case, the variable is *not* locked upon return.

 $count->timedwait( 10 ) while $state->get() eq "foo";

SUGAR METHODS

This module is equipped with sugar methods to not have to call set and get explicitly. In shared context, the benefit is atomicity and reduction in inter-process communication.

The API resembles a subset of the Redis primitives http://redis.io/commands#strings without the key argument.

append ( value )

Appends a value at the end of the current value and returns its new length.

 $len = $cv->append( "foo" );

decr

Decrements the value by one and returns its new value.

 $num = $cv->decr;

decrby ( number )

Decrements the value by the given number and returns its new value.

 $num = $cv->decrby( 2 );

getdecr

Decrements the value by one and returns its old value.

 $old = $cv->getdecr;

getincr

Increments the value by one and returns its old value.

 $old = $cv->getincr;

getset ( value )

Sets the value and returns its old value.

 $old = $cv->getset( "baz" );

incr

Increments the value by one and returns its new value.

 $num = $cv->incr;

incrby ( number )

Increments the value by the given number and returns its new value.

 $num = $cv->incrby( 2 );

CHAMENEOS DEMONSTRATION

The MCE example is derived from the chameneos example by Jonathan DePeri and Andrew Rodland.

 use 5.010;
 use strict;
 use warnings;

 use MCE::Hobo;
 use MCE::Shared;
 use Time::HiRes 'time';

 die 'No argument given' if not @ARGV;

 my $start = time;
 my %color = ( blue => 1, red => 2, yellow => 4 );

 my ( @colors, @complement );

 @colors[values %color] = keys %color;

 for my $triple (
   [qw(blue blue blue)],
   [qw(red red red)],
   [qw(yellow yellow yellow)],
   [qw(blue red yellow)],
   [qw(blue yellow red)],
   [qw(red blue yellow)],
   [qw(red yellow blue)],
   [qw(yellow red blue)],
   [qw(yellow blue red)],
 ) {
   $complement[ $color{$triple->[0]} | $color{$triple->[1]} ] =
     $color{$triple->[2]};
 }

 my @numbers = qw(zero one two three four five six seven eight nine);

 sub display_complements
 {
   for my $i (1, 2, 4) {
     for my $j (1, 2, 4) {
       print "$colors[$i] + $colors[$j] -> $colors[ $complement[$i | $j] ]\n";
     }
   }
   print "\n";
 }

 sub num2words
 {
   join ' ', '', map $numbers[$_], split //, shift;
 }

 # Construct condvars and queues first before other shared objects or in
 # any order when IO::FDPass is installed, used by MCE::Shared::Server.

 my $meetings = MCE::Shared->condvar();

 tie my @creatures, 'MCE::Shared';
 tie my $first, 'MCE::Shared', undef;
 tie my @met, 'MCE::Shared';
 tie my @met_self, 'MCE::Shared';

 sub chameneos
 {
   my $id = shift;

   while (1) {
     $meetings->lock();

     unless ($meetings->get()) {
       $meetings->unlock();
       last;
     }

     if (defined $first) {
       $creatures[$first] = $creatures[$id] =
         $complement[$creatures[$first] | $creatures[$id]];

       $met_self[$first]++ if ($first == $id);
       $met[$first]++;  $met[$id]++;
       $meetings->decr();
       $first = undef;

       # Unlike threads::shared (condvar) which retains the lock
       # while in the scope, MCE::Shared signal and wait methods
       # must be called prior to leaving the block, due to lock
       # being released upon return.

       $meetings->signal();
     }
     else {
       $first = $id;
       $meetings->wait();  # ditto ^^
     }
   }
 }

 sub pall_mall
 {
   my $N = shift;
   @creatures = map $color{$_}, @_;
   my @threads;

   print " ", join(" ", @_);
   $meetings->set($N);

   for (0 .. $#creatures) {
     $met[$_] = $met_self[$_] = 0;
     push @threads, MCE::Hobo->create(\&chameneos, $_);
   }
   for (@threads) {
     $_->join();
   }

   $meetings->set(0);

   for (0 .. $#creatures) {
     print "\n$met[$_]", num2words($met_self[$_]);
     $meetings->incrby($met[$_]);
   }

   print "\n", num2words($meetings->get()), "\n\n";
 }

 display_complements();

 pall_mall($ARGV[0], qw(blue red yellow));
 pall_mall($ARGV[0], qw(blue red yellow red yellow blue red yellow red blue));

 printf "duration: %0.03f\n", time - $start;

CREDITS

The conditional locking feature is inspired by threads::shared.

LIMITATIONS

Perl must have IO::FDPass for constructing a shared condvar or queue while the shared-manager process is running. For platforms where IO::FDPass isn't possible, construct condvar and queue before other classes. On systems without IO::FDPass, the manager process is delayed until sharing other classes or started explicitly.

 use MCE::Shared;

 my $has_IO_FDPass = $INC{'IO/FDPass.pm'} ? 1 : 0;

 my $cv  = MCE::Shared->condvar();
 my $que = MCE::Shared->queue();

 MCE::Shared->start() unless $has_IO_FDPass;

Regarding mce_open, IO::FDPass is needed for constructing a shared-handle from a non-shared handle not yet available inside the shared-manager process. The workaround is to have the non-shared handle made before the shared-manager is started. Passing a file by reference is fine for the three STD* handles.

 # The shared-manager knows of \*STDIN, \*STDOUT, \*STDERR.

 mce_open my $shared_in,  "<",  \*STDIN;   # ok
 mce_open my $shared_out, ">>", \*STDOUT;  # ok
 mce_open my $shared_err, ">>", \*STDERR;  # ok
 mce_open my $shared_fh1, "<",  "/path/to/sequence.fasta";  # ok
 mce_open my $shared_fh2, ">>", "/path/to/results.log";     # ok

 mce_open my $shared_fh, ">>", \*NON_SHARED_FH;  # requires IO::FDPass

The IO::FDPass module is known to work reliably on most platforms. Install 1.1 or later to rid of limitations described above.

 perl -MIO::FDPass -le "print 'Cheers! Perl has IO::FDPass.'"

INDEX

MCE, MCE::Hobo, MCE::Shared

AUTHOR

Mario E. Roy, <marioeroy AT gmail DOT com>