Mail::SPF::Record - Abstract base class for SPF records


Creating a record from a string

    use Mail::SPF::v1::Record;

    my $record = Mail::SPF::v1::Record->new_from_string("v=spf1 a mx -all");

Creating a record synthetically

    use Mail::SPF::v2::Record;

    my $record = Mail::SPF::v2::Record->new(
        scopes      => ['mfrom', 'pra'],
        terms       => [
            Mail::SPF::Mech::All->new(qualifier => '-')
        global_mods => [
            Mail::SPF::Mod::Exp->new(domain_spec => '')


Mail::SPF::Record is an abstract base class for SPF records. It cannot be instantiated directly. Create an instance of a concrete sub-class instead.


The following constructors are provided:

new(%options): returns Mail::SPF::Record

Creates a new SPF record object.

%options is a list of key/value pairs representing any of the following options:


A string denoting the unparsed text of the record.


A reference to an array of strings denoting the scopes that are covered by the record (see the description of the scope option of Mail::SPF::Request's new constructor).


A reference to an array of Mail::SPF::Term (i.e. Mail::SPF::Mech or Mail::SPF::Mod) objects that make up the record. Mail::SPF::GlobalMod objects must not be included here, but should be specified using the global_mods option instead.


A reference to an array of Mail::SPF::GlobalMod objects that are global modifiers of the record.

new_from_string($text, %options): returns Mail::SPF::Record; throws Mail::SPF::ENothingToParse, Mail::SPF::EInvalidRecordVersion, Mail::SPF::ESyntaxError

Creates a new SPF record object by parsing the string and any options given.

Class methods

The following class methods are provided:

version_tag_pattern: returns Regexp

Abstract. Returns a regular expression that matches a legal version tag.

This method is abstract and must be implemented by sub-classes of Mail::SPF::Record.

default_qualifier: returns string

Returns the default qualifier, i.e. '+'.

results_by_qualifier: returns hash of string

Returns a reference to a hash that maps qualifiers to result codes as follows:

     Qualifier | Result code
         +     | pass
         -     | fail
         ~     | softfail
         ?     | neutral

Instance methods

The following instance methods are provided:

text: returns string; throws Mail::SPF::ENoUnparsedText

Returns the unparsed text of the record. Throws a Mail::SPF::ENoUnparsedText exception if the record was created synthetically instead of being parsed, and no text was provided.

version_tag: returns string

Abstract. Returns the version tag of the record.

This method is abstract and must be implemented by sub-classes of Mail::SPF::Record.

scopes: returns list of string

Returns a list of the scopes that are covered by the record. See the description of the "new" constructor's scopes option.

terms: returns list of Mail::SPF::Term

Returns a list of the terms that make up the record, excluding any global modifiers, which are returned by the global_mods method. See the description of the "new" constructor's terms option.

global_mods: returns list of Mail::SPF::GlobalMod

Returns a list of the global modifiers of the record, ordered ascending by modifier precedence. See the description of the "new" constructor's global_mods option.

global_mod($mod_name): returns Mail::SPF::GlobalMod

Returns the global modifier of the given name if it is present in the record. Returns undef otherwise. Use this method if you wish to retrieve a specific global modifier as opposed to getting all of them.

stringify: returns string

Returns the record's version tag and terms (including the global modifiers) formatted as a string. You can simply use a Mail::SPF::Record object as a string for the same effect, see "OVERLOADING".

eval($server, $request): throws Mail::SPF::Result

Evaluates the SPF record in the context of the request parameters represented by the given Mail::SPF::Request object. The given Mail::SPF::Server object is used for performing DNS look-ups. Throws a Mail::SPF::Result object matching the outcome of the evaluation; see Mail::SPF::Result. See RFC 4408, 4.6 and 4.7, for the exact algorithm used.


If a Mail::SPF::Record object is used as a string, the stringify method is used to convert the object into a string.


Mail::SPF, Mail::SPF::v1::Record, Mail::SPF::v2::Record, Mail::SPF::Term, Mail::SPF::Mech, Mail::SPF::Mod

For availability, support, and license information, see the README file included with Mail::SPF.


Julian Mehnle <>, Shevek <>