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NEMUX RWSTAUNER MIKEGRB PSMITH RSCHABER

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180 non-PAUSE users.

Sebastian Riedel

NAME

Mojo::DOM - Minimalistic HTML/XML DOM parser with CSS selectors

SYNOPSIS

  use Mojo::DOM;

  # Parse
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<div><p id="a">Test</p><p id="b">123</p></div>');

  # Find
  say $dom->at('#b')->text;
  say $dom->find('p')->map('text')->join("\n");
  say $dom->find('[id]')->map(attr => 'id')->join("\n");

  # Iterate
  $dom->find('p[id]')->reverse->each(sub { say $_->{id} });

  # Loop
  for my $e ($dom->find('p[id]')->each) {
    say $e->{id}, ':', $e->text;
  }

  # Modify
  $dom->find('div p')->last->append('<p id="c">456</p>');
  $dom->find(':not(p)')->map('strip');

  # Render
  say "$dom";

DESCRIPTION

Mojo::DOM is a minimalistic and relaxed HTML/XML DOM parser with CSS selector support. It will even try to interpret broken HTML and XML, so you should not use it for validation.

NODES AND ELEMENTS

When we parse an HTML/XML fragment, it gets turned into a tree of nodes.

  <!DOCTYPE html>
  <html>
    <head><title>Hello</title></head>
    <body>World!</body>
  </html>

There are currently eight different kinds of nodes, cdata, comment, doctype, pi, raw, root, tag and text. Elements are nodes of the type tag.

  root
  |- doctype (html)
  +- tag (html)
     |- tag (head)
     |  +- tag (title)
     |     +- raw (Hello)
     +- tag (body)
        +- text (World!)

While all node types are represented as Mojo::DOM objects, some methods like "attr" and "namespace" only apply to elements.

CASE-SENSITIVITY

Mojo::DOM defaults to HTML semantics, that means all tags and attribute names are lowercased and selectors need to be lowercase as well.

  # HTML semantics
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
  say $dom->at('p[id]')->text;

If an XML declaration is found, the parser will automatically switch into XML mode and everything becomes case-sensitive.

  # XML semantics
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<?xml version="1.0"?><P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
  say $dom->at('P[ID]')->text;

XML detection can also be disabled with the "xml" method.

  # Force XML semantics
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new->xml(1)->parse('<P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
  say $dom->at('P[ID]')->text;

  # Force HTML semantics
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new->xml(0)->parse('<P ID="greeting">Hi!</P>');
  say $dom->at('p[id]')->text;

METHODS

Mojo::DOM implements the following methods.

all_text

  my $text = $dom->all_text;

Extract text content from all descendant nodes of this element.

  # "foo\nbarbaz\n"
  $dom->parse("<div>foo\n<p>bar</p>baz\n</div>")->at('div')->all_text;

ancestors

  my $collection = $dom->ancestors;
  my $collection = $dom->ancestors('div ~ p');

Find all ancestor elements of this node matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # List tag names of ancestor elements
  say $dom->ancestors->map('tag')->join("\n");

append

  $dom = $dom->append('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');

Append HTML/XML fragment to this node (for all node types other than root).

  # "<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')
    ->at('h1')->append('<h2>123</h2>')->root;

  # "<p>Test 123</p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')
    ->child_nodes->first->append(' 123')->root;

append_content

  $dom = $dom->append_content('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');

Append HTML/XML fragment (for root and tag nodes) or raw content to this node's content.

  # "<div><h1>Test123</h1></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')
    ->at('h1')->append_content('123')->root;

  # "<!-- Test 123 --><br>"
  $dom->parse('<!-- Test --><br>')
    ->child_nodes->first->append_content('123 ')->root;

  # "<p>Test<i>123</i></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->append_content('<i>123</i>')->root;

at

  my $result = $dom->at('div ~ p');

Find first descendant element of this element matching the CSS selector and return it as a Mojo::DOM object, or undef if none could be found. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # Find first element with "svg" namespace definition
  my $namespace = $dom->at('[xmlns\:svg]')->{'xmlns:svg'};

attr

  my $hash = $dom->attr;
  my $foo  = $dom->attr('foo');
  $dom     = $dom->attr({foo => 'bar'});
  $dom     = $dom->attr(foo => 'bar');

This element's attributes.

  # Remove an attribute
  delete $dom->attr->{id};

  # Attribute without value
  $dom->attr(selected => undef);

  # List id attributes
  say $dom->find('*')->map(attr => 'id')->compact->join("\n");

child_nodes

  my $collection = $dom->child_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all child nodes of this element as Mojo::DOM objects.

  # "<p><b>123</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test<b>123</b></p>')->at('p')->child_nodes->first->remove;

  # "<!DOCTYPE html>"
  $dom->parse('<!DOCTYPE html><b>123</b>')->child_nodes->first;

  # " Test "
  $dom->parse('<b>123</b><!-- Test -->')->child_nodes->last->content;

children

  my $collection = $dom->children;
  my $collection = $dom->children('div ~ p');

Find all child elements of this element matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # Show tag name of random child element
  say $dom->children->shuffle->first->tag;

content

  my $str = $dom->content;
  $dom    = $dom->content('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');

Return this node's content or replace it with HTML/XML fragment (for root and tag nodes) or raw content.

  # "<b>Test</b>"
  $dom->parse('<div><b>Test</b></div>')->at('div')->content;

  # "<div><h1>123</h1></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->content('123')->root;

  # "<p><i>123</i></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->content('<i>123</i>')->root;

  # "<div><h1></h1></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->content('')->root;

  # " Test "
  $dom->parse('<!-- Test --><br>')->child_nodes->first->content;

  # "<div><!-- 123 -->456</div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><!-- Test -->456</div>')
    ->at('div')->child_nodes->first->content(' 123 ')->root;

descendant_nodes

  my $collection = $dom->descendant_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all descendant nodes of this element as Mojo::DOM objects.

  # "<p><b>123</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p><!-- Test --><b>123<!-- 456 --></b></p>')
    ->descendant_nodes->grep(sub { $_->type eq 'comment' })
    ->map('remove')->first;

  # "<p><b>test</b>test</p>"
  $dom->parse('<p><b>123</b>456</p>')
    ->at('p')->descendant_nodes->grep(sub { $_->type eq 'text' })
    ->map(content => 'test')->first->root;

find

  my $collection = $dom->find('div ~ p');

Find all descendant elements of this element matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # Find a specific element and extract information
  my $id = $dom->find('div')->[23]{id};

  # Extract information from multiple elements
  my @headers = $dom->find('h1, h2, h3')->map('text')->each;

  # Count all the different tags
  my $hash = $dom->find('*')->reduce(sub { $a->{$b->tag}++; $a }, {});

  # Find elements with a class that contains dots
  my @divs = $dom->find('div.foo\.bar')->each;

following

  my $collection = $dom->following;
  my $collection = $dom->following('div ~ p');

Find all sibling elements after this node matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # List tags of sibling elements after this node
  say $dom->following->map('tag')->join("\n");

following_nodes

  my $collection = $dom->following_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all sibling nodes after this node as Mojo::DOM objects.

  # "C"
  $dom->parse('<p>A</p><!-- B -->C')->at('p')->following_nodes->last->content;

matches

  my $bool = $dom->matches('div ~ p');

Check if this element matches the CSS selector. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # True
  $dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('.a');
  $dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('p[class]');

  # False
  $dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('.b');
  $dom->parse('<p class="a">A</p>')->at('p')->matches('p[id]');

namespace

  my $namespace = $dom->namespace;

Find this element's namespace, or return undef if none could be found.

  # Find namespace for an element with namespace prefix
  my $namespace = $dom->at('svg > svg\:circle')->namespace;

  # Find namespace for an element that may or may not have a namespace prefix
  my $namespace = $dom->at('svg > circle')->namespace;

new

  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new;
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new('<foo bar="baz">I ♥ Mojolicious!</foo>');

Construct a new scalar-based Mojo::DOM object and "parse" HTML/XML fragment if necessary.

next

  my $sibling = $dom->next;

Return Mojo::DOM object for next sibling element, or undef if there are no more siblings.

  # "<h2>123</h2>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>')->at('h1')->next;

next_node

  my $sibling = $dom->next_node;

Return Mojo::DOM object for next sibling node, or undef if there are no more siblings.

  # "456"
  $dom->parse('<p><b>123</b><!-- Test -->456</p>')
    ->at('b')->next_node->next_node;

  # " Test "
  $dom->parse('<p><b>123</b><!-- Test -->456</p>')
    ->at('b')->next_node->content;

parent

  my $parent = $dom->parent;

Return Mojo::DOM object for parent of this node, or undef if this node has no parent.

  # "<b><i>Test</i></b>"
  $dom->parse('<p><b><i>Test</i></b></p>')->at('i')->parent;

parse

  $dom = $dom->parse('<foo bar="baz">I ♥ Mojolicious!</foo>');

Parse HTML/XML fragment with Mojo::DOM::HTML.

  # Parse XML
  my $dom = Mojo::DOM->new->xml(1)->parse('<foo>I ♥ Mojolicious!</foo>');

preceding

  my $collection = $dom->preceding;
  my $collection = $dom->preceding('div ~ p');

Find all sibling elements before this node matching the CSS selector and return a Mojo::Collection object containing these elements as Mojo::DOM objects. All selectors from "SELECTORS" in Mojo::DOM::CSS are supported.

  # List tags of sibling elements before this node
  say $dom->preceding->map('tag')->join("\n");

preceding_nodes

  my $collection = $dom->preceding_nodes;

Return a Mojo::Collection object containing all sibling nodes before this node as Mojo::DOM objects.

  # "A"
  $dom->parse('A<!-- B --><p>C</p>')->at('p')->preceding_nodes->first->content;

prepend

  $dom = $dom->prepend('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');

Prepend HTML/XML fragment to this node (for all node types other than root).

  # "<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h2>123</h2></div>')
    ->at('h2')->prepend('<h1>Test</h1>')->root;

  # "<p>Test 123</p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>123</p>')
    ->at('p')->child_nodes->first->prepend('Test ')->root;

prepend_content

  $dom = $dom->prepend_content('<p>I ♥ Mojolicious!</p>');

Prepend HTML/XML fragment (for root and tag nodes) or raw content to this node's content.

  # "<div><h2>Test123</h2></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h2>123</h2></div>')
    ->at('h2')->prepend_content('Test')->root;

  # "<!-- Test 123 --><br>"
  $dom->parse('<!-- 123 --><br>')
    ->child_nodes->first->prepend_content(' Test')->root;

  # "<p><i>123</i>Test</p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->prepend_content('<i>123</i>')->root;

previous

  my $sibling = $dom->previous;

Return Mojo::DOM object for previous sibling element, or undef if there are no more siblings.

  # "<h1>Test</h1>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1><h2>123</h2></div>')->at('h2')->previous;

previous_node

  my $sibling = $dom->previous_node;

Return Mojo::DOM object for previous sibling node, or undef if there are no more siblings.

  # "123"
  $dom->parse('<p>123<!-- Test --><b>456</b></p>')
    ->at('b')->previous_node->previous_node;

  # " Test "
  $dom->parse('<p>123<!-- Test --><b>456</b></p>')
    ->at('b')->previous_node->content;

remove

  my $parent = $dom->remove;

Remove this node and return "root" (for root nodes) or "parent".

  # "<div></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->remove;

  # "<p><b>456</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>123<b>456</b></p>')
    ->at('p')->child_nodes->first->remove->root;

replace

  my $parent = $dom->replace('<div>I ♥ Mojolicious!</div>');

Replace this node with HTML/XML fragment and return "root" (for root nodes) or "parent".

  # "<div><h2>123</h2></div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->replace('<h2>123</h2>');

  # "<p><b>123</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')
    ->at('p')->child_nodes->[0]->replace('<b>123</b>')->root;

root

  my $root = $dom->root;

Return Mojo::DOM object for root node.

strip

  my $parent = $dom->strip;

Remove this element while preserving its content and return "parent".

  # "<div>Test</div>"
  $dom->parse('<div><h1>Test</h1></div>')->at('h1')->strip;

tag

  my $tag = $dom->tag;
  $dom    = $dom->tag('div');

This element's tag name.

  # List tag names of child elements
  say $dom->children->map('tag')->join("\n");

tap

  $dom = $dom->tap(sub {...});

Alias for "tap" in Mojo::Base.

text

  my $text = $dom->text;

Extract text content from this element only (not including child elements).

  # "bar"
  $dom->parse("<div>foo<p>bar</p>baz</div>")->at('p')->text;

  # "foo\nbaz\n"
  $dom->parse("<div>foo\n<p>bar</p>baz\n</div>")->at('div')->text;

to_string

  my $str = $dom->to_string;

Render this node and its content to HTML/XML.

  # "<b>Test</b>"
  $dom->parse('<div><b>Test</b></div>')->at('div b')->to_string;

tree

  my $tree = $dom->tree;
  $dom     = $dom->tree(['root']);

Document Object Model. Note that this structure should only be used very carefully since it is very dynamic.

type

  my $type = $dom->type;

This node's type, usually cdata, comment, doctype, pi, raw, root, tag or text.

  # "cdata"
  $dom->parse('<![CDATA[Test]]>')->child_nodes->first->type;

  # "comment"
  $dom->parse('<!-- Test -->')->child_nodes->first->type;

  # "doctype"
  $dom->parse('<!DOCTYPE html>')->child_nodes->first->type;

  # "pi"
  $dom->parse('<?xml version="1.0"?>')->child_nodes->first->type;

  # "raw"
  $dom->parse('<title>Test</title>')->at('title')->child_nodes->first->type;

  # "root"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->type;

  # "tag"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->type;

  # "text"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->child_nodes->first->type;

val

  my $value = $dom->val;

Extract value from form element (such as button, input, option, select and textarea), or return undef if this element has no value. In the case of select with multiple attribute, find option elements with selected attribute and return an array reference with all values, or undef if none could be found.

  # "a"
  $dom->parse('<input name=test value=a>')->at('input')->val;

  # "b"
  $dom->parse('<textarea>b</textarea>')->at('textarea')->val;

  # "c"
  $dom->parse('<option value="c">Test</option>')->at('option')->val;

  # "d"
  $dom->parse('<select><option selected>d</option></select>')
    ->at('select')->val;

  # "e"
  $dom->parse('<select multiple><option selected>e</option></select>')
    ->at('select')->val->[0];

  # "on"
  $dom->parse('<input name=test type=checkbox>')->at('input')->val;

wrap

  $dom = $dom->wrap('<div></div>');

Wrap HTML/XML fragment around this node (for all node types other than root), placing it as the last child of the first innermost element.

  # "<p>123<b>Test</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->at('b')->wrap('<p>123</p>')->root;

  # "<div><p><b>Test</b></p>123</div>"
  $dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->at('b')->wrap('<div><p></p>123</div>')->root;

  # "<p><b>Test</b></p><p>123</p>"
  $dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->at('b')->wrap('<p></p><p>123</p>')->root;

  # "<p><b>Test</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test</p>')->at('p')->child_nodes->first->wrap('<b>')->root;

wrap_content

  $dom = $dom->wrap_content('<div></div>');

Wrap HTML/XML fragment around this node's content (for root and tag nodes), placing it as the last children of the first innermost element.

  # "<p><b>123Test</b></p>"
  $dom->parse('<p>Test<p>')->at('p')->wrap_content('<b>123</b>')->root;

  # "<p><b>Test</b></p><p>123</p>"
  $dom->parse('<b>Test</b>')->wrap_content('<p></p><p>123</p>');

xml

  my $bool = $dom->xml;
  $dom     = $dom->xml($bool);

Disable HTML semantics in parser and activate case-sensitivity, defaults to auto-detection based on XML declarations.

OPERATORS

Mojo::DOM overloads the following operators.

array

  my @nodes = @$dom;

Alias for "child_nodes".

  # "<!-- Test -->"
  $dom->parse('<!-- Test --><b>123</b>')->[0];

bool

  my $bool = !!$dom;

Always true.

hash

  my %attrs = %$dom;

Alias for "attr".

  # "test"
  $dom->parse('<div id="test">Test</div>')->at('div')->{id};

stringify

  my $str = "$dom";

Alias for "to_string".

SEE ALSO

Mojolicious, Mojolicious::Guides, http://mojolicious.org.