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Florian Ragwitz

NAME

NanoMsg::Raw - Low-level interface to the nanomsg scalability protocols library

SYNOPSIS

    use NanoMsg::Raw;

    my $sb = nn_socket(AF_SP, NN_PAIR);
    nn_bind($sb, 'inproc://foo');
    nn_send($sb, 'bar');

    my $sc = nn_socket(AF_SP, NN_PAIR);
    nn_connect($sc, 'inproc://foo');
    nn_recv($sc, my $buf);
    is $buf, 'bar';

DESCRIPTION

NanoMsg::Raw is a binding to the nanomsg C library. The goal of this module is to provide a very low-level and manual interface to all the functionality of the nanomsg library. It doesn't intend to provide a convenient high-level API, integration with event loops, or the like. Those are intended to be implemented as separate abstractions on top of NanoMsg::Raw.

The nanomsg C library is a high-performance implementation of several "scalability protocols". Scalability protocol's job is to define how multiple applications communicate to form a single distributed application. Implementation of following scalability protocols is available at the moment:

  • PAIR

    simple one-to-one communication

  • BUS

    simple many-to-many communication

  • REQREP

    allows to build clusters of stateless services to process user requests

  • PUBSUB

    distributes messages to large sets of interested subscribers

  • PIPELINE

    aggregates messages from multiple sources and load balances them among many destinations

  • SURVEY

    allows to query state of multiple applications in a single go

Scalability protocols are layered on top of transport layer in the network stack. At the moment, nanomsg library supports following transports:

  • INPROC

    transport within a process (between threads, modules etc.)

  • IPC

    transport between processes on a single machine

  • TCP

    network transport via TCP

FUNCTIONS

nn_socket($domain, $protocol)

    my $s = nn_socket(AF_SP, NN_PAIR);
    die nn_errno unless defined $s;

Creates a nanomsg socket with specified $domain and $protocol. Returns a file descriptor for the newly created socket.

Following domains are defined at the moment:

  • AF_SP

    Standard full-blown SP socket.

  • AF_SP_RAW

    Raw SP socket. Raw sockets omit the end-to-end functionality found in AF_SP sockets and thus can be used to implement intermediary devices in SP topologies.

The $protocol parameter defines the type of the socket, which in turn determines the exact semantics of the socket. See "Protocols" to get the list of available protocols and their socket types.

The newly created socket is initially not associated with any endpoints. In order to establish a message flow at least one endpoint has to be added to the socket using nn_bind or nn_connect.

Also note that type argument as found in standard socket function is omitted from nn_socket. All the SP sockets are message-based and thus of SOCK_SEQPACKET type.

If the function succeeds file descriptor of the new socket is returned. Otherwise, undef is returned and nn_errno is set to to one of the values defined below.

  • EAFNOSUPPORT

    Specified address family is not supported.

  • EINVAL

    Unknown protocol.

  • EMFILE

    The limit on the total number of open SP sockets or OS limit for file descriptors has been reached.

  • ETERM

    The library is terminating.

Note that file descriptors returned by nn_socket function are not standard file descriptors and will exhibit undefined behaviour when used with system functions. Moreover, it may happen that a system file descriptor and file descriptor of an SP socket will incidentally collide (be equal).

nn_close($s)

    nn_close($s) or die nn_errno;

Closes the socket $s. Any buffered inbound messages that were not yet received by the application will be discarded. The library will try to deliver any outstanding outbound messages for the time specified by NN_LINGER socket option. The call will block in the meantime.

If the function succeeds, a true value is returned. Otherwise, undef is returned and nn_errno is set to to one of the values defined below.

  • EBADF

    The provided socket is invalid.

  • EINTR

    Operation was interrupted by a signal. The socket is not fully closed yet. Operation can be re-started by calling nn_close again.

nn_setsockopt($s, $level, $option, $value)

    nn_setsockopt($s, NN_SOL_SOCKET, NN_LINGER, 1000) or die nn_errno;
    nn_setsockopt($s, NN_SOL_SOCKET, NN_SUB_SUBSCRIBE, 'ABC') or die nn_errno;

Sets the $value of the socket option $option. The $level argument specifies the protocol level at which the option resides. For generic socket-level options use the NN_SOL_SOCKET level. For socket-type-specific options use the socket type for the $level argument (e.g. NN_SUB). For transport-specific options use the ID of the transport as the $level argument (e.g. NN_TCP).

If the function succeeds a true value is returned. Otherwise, undef is returned and nn_errno is set to to one of the values defined below.

  • EBADF

    The provided socket is invalid.

  • ENOPROTOOPT

    The option is unknown at the level indicated.

  • EINVAL

    The specified option value is invalid.

  • ETERM

    The library is terminating.

These are the generic socket-level (NN_SOL_SOCKET level) options:

  • NN_LINGER

    Specifies how long the socket should try to send pending outbound messages after nn_close has been called, in milliseconds. Negative values mean infinite linger. The type of the option is int. The default value is 1000 (1 second).

  • NN_SNDBUF

    Size of the send buffer, in bytes. To prevent blocking for messages larger than the buffer, exactly one message may be buffered in addition to the data in the send buffer. The type of this option is int. The default value is 128kB.

  • NN_RCVBUF

    Size of the receive buffer, in bytes. To prevent blocking for messages larger than the buffer, exactly one message may be buffered in addition to the data in the receive buffer. The type of this option is int. The default value is 128kB.

  • NN_SNDTIMEO

    The timeout for send operation on the socket, in milliseconds. If a message cannot be sent within the specified timeout, an EAGAIN error is returned. Negative values mean infinite timeout. The type of the option is int. The default value is -1.

  • NN_RCVTIMEO

    The timeout for recv operation on the socket, in milliseconds. If a message cannot be received within the specified timeout, an EAGAIN error is returned. Negative values mean infinite timeout. The type of the option is int. The default value is -1.

  • NN_RECONNECT_IVL

    For connection-based transports such as TCP, this option specifies how long to wait, in milliseconds, when connection is broken before trying to re-establish it. Note that actual reconnect interval may be randomised to some extent to prevent severe reconnection storms. The type of the option is int. The default value is 100 (0.1 second).

  • NN_RECONNECT_IVL_MAX

    This option is to be used only in addition to NN_RECONNECT_IVL option. It specifies maximum reconnection interval. On each reconnect attempt, the previous interval is doubled until NN_RECONNECT_IVL_MAX is reached. A value of zero means that no exponential backoff is performed and reconnect interval is based only on NN_RECONNECT_IVL. If NN_RECONNECT_IVL_MAX is less than NN_RECONNECT_IVL, it is ignored. The type of the option is int. The default value is 0.

  • NN_SNDPRIO

    Sets outbound priority for endpoints subsequently added to the socket. This option has no effect on socket types that send messages to all the peers. However, if the socket type sends each message to a single peer (or a limited set of peers), peers with high priority take precedence over peers with low priority. The type of the option is int. The highest priority is 1, the lowest priority is 16. The default value is 8.

  • NN_IPV4ONLY

    If set to 1, only IPv4 addresses are used. If set to 0, both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are used. The default value is 1.

nn_getsockopt($s, $level, $option)

    my $linger = unpack 'i', nn_getsockopt($s, NN_SOL_SOCKET, NN_LINGER) || die nn_errno;

Retrieves the value for the socket option $option. The $level argument specifies the protocol level at which the option resides. For generic socket-level options use the NN_SOL_SOCKET level. For socket-type-specific options use the socket type for the $level argument (e.g. NN_SUB). For transport-specific options use ID of the transport as the $level argument (e.g. NN_TCP).

The function returns a packed string representing the requested socket option, or undef on error, with one of the following reasons for the error placed in nn_errno.

  • EBADF

    The provided socket is invalid.

  • ENOPROTOOPT

    The option is unknown at the $level indicated.

  • ETERM

    The library is terminating.

Just what is in the packed string depends on $level and $option; see the list of socket options for details; A common case is that the option is an integer, in which case the result is a packed integer, which you can decode using unpack with the i (or I) format.

This function can be used to retrieve the values for all the generic socket-level (NN_SOL_SOCKET) options documented in nn_getsockopt and also supports these additional generic socket-level options that can only be retrieved but not set:

  • NN_DOMAIN

    Returns the domain constant as it was passed to nn_socket.

  • NN_PROTOCOL

    Returns the protocol constant as it was passed to nn_socket.

  • NN_SNDFD

    Retrieves a file descriptor that is readable when a message can be sent to the socket. The descriptor should be used only for polling and never read from or written to. The type of the option is int. The descriptor becomes invalid and should not be used any more once the socket is closed. This socket option is not available for unidirectional recv-only socket types.

  • NN_RCVFD

    Retrieves a file descriptor that is readable when a message can be received from the socket. The descriptor should be used only for polling and never read from or written to. The type of the option is int. The descriptor becomes invalid and should not be used any more once the socket is closed. This socket option is not available for unidirectional send-only socket types.

nn_bind($s, $addr)

    my $eid = nn_bind($s, 'inproc://test');
    die nn_errno unless defined $eid;

Adds a local endpoint to the socket $s. The endpoint can be then used by other applications to connect to.

The $addr argument consists of two parts as follows: transport://address. The transport specifies the underlying transport protocol to use. The meaning of the address part is specific to the underlying transport protocol.

See "Transports" for a list of available transport protocols.

The maximum length of the $addr parameter is specified by NN_SOCKADDR_MAX constant.

Note that nn_bind and nn_connect may be called multiple times on the same socket thus allowing the socket to communicate with multiple heterogeneous endpoints.

If the function succeeds, an endpoint ID is returned. Endpoint ID can be later used to remove the endpoint from the socket via nn_shutdown function.

If the function fails, undef is returned and nn_errno is set to to one of the values defined below.

  • EBADF

    The provided socket is invalid.

  • EMFILE

    Maximum number of active endpoints was reached.

  • EINVAL

    The syntax of the supplied address is invalid.

  • ENAMETOOLONG

    The supplied address is too long.

  • EPROTONOSUPPORT

    The requested transport protocol is not supported.

  • EADDRNOTAVAIL

    The requested endpoint is not local.

  • ENODEV

    Address specifies a nonexistent interface.

  • EADDRINUSE

    The requested local endpoint is already in use.

  • ETERM

    The library is terminating.

nn_connect($s, $addr)

    my $eid = nn_connect($s, 'inproc://test');
    die nn_errno unless defined $eid;

Adds a remote endpoint to the socket $s. The library would then try to connect to the specified remote endpoint.

The $addr argument consists of two parts as follows: transport://address. The transport specifies the underlying transport protocol to use. The meaning of the address part is specific to the underlying transport protocol.

See "Protocols" for a list of available transport protocols.

The maximum length of the $addr parameter is specified by NN_SOCKADDR_MAX constant.

Note that nn_connect and nn_bind may be called multiple times on the same socket thus allowing the socket to communicate with multiple heterogeneous endpoints.

If the function succeeds, an endpoint ID is returned. Endpoint ID can be later used to remove the endpoint from the socket via nn_shutdown function.

If the function fails, undef is returned and nn_errno is set to to one of the values defined below.

  • EBADF

    The provided socket is invalid.

  • EMFILE

    Maximum number of active endpoints was reached.

  • EINVAL

    The syntax of the supplied address is invalid.

  • ENAMETOOLONG

    The supplied address is too long.

  • EPROTONOSUPPORT

    The requested transport protocol is not supported.

  • ENODEV

    Address specifies a nonexistent interface.

  • ETERM

    The library is terminating.

nn_shutdown($s, $eid)

    nn_shutdown($s, $eid) or die nn_errno;

Removes an endpoint from socket $s. The eid parameter specifies the ID of the endpoint to remove as returned by prior call to nn_bind or nn_connect.

The nn_shutdown call will return immediately. However, the library will try to deliver any outstanding outbound messages to the endpoint for the time specified by the NN_LINGER socket option.

If the function succeeds, a true value is returned. Otherwise, undef is returned and nn_errno is set to to one of the values defined below.

  • EBADF

    The provided socket is invalid.

  • EINVAL

    The how parameter doesn’t correspond to an active endpoint.

  • EINTR

    Operation was interrupted by a signal. The endpoint is not fully closed yet. Operation can be re-started by calling nn_shutdown again.

  • ETERM

    The library is terminating.

nn_send($s, $data, $flags=0)

    my $bytes_sent = nn_send($s, 'foo');
    die nn_errno unless defined $bytes_sent;

This function will send a message containing the provided $data to the socket $s.

$data can either be anything that can be used as a byte string in perl or a message buffer instance allocated by nn_allocmsg. In case of a message buffer instance the instance will be deallocated and invalidated by the nn_send function. The buffer will be an instance of NanoMsg::Raw::Message::Freed after the call to nn_send.

Which of the peers the message will be sent to is determined by the particular socket type.

The $flags argument, which defaults to 0, is a combination of the flags defined below:

  • NN_DONTWAIT

    Specifies that the operation should be performed in non-blocking mode. If the message cannot be sent straight away, the function will fail with nn_errno set to EAGAIN.

If the function succeeds, the number of bytes in the message is returned. Otherwise, a undef is returned and nn_errno is set to to one of the values defined below.

  • EBADF

    The provided socket is invalid.

  • ENOTSUP

    The operation is not supported by this socket type.

  • EFSM

    The operation cannot be performed on this socket at the moment because the socket is not in the appropriate state. This error may occur with socket types that switch between several states.

  • EAGAIN

    Non-blocking mode was requested and the message cannot be sent at the moment.

  • EINTR

    The operation was interrupted by delivery of a signal before the message was sent.

  • ETIMEDOUT

    Individual socket types may define their own specific timeouts. If such timeout is hit, this error will be returned.

  • ETERM

    The library is terminating.

nn_recv($s, $data, $length=NN_MSG, $flags=0)

    my $bytes_received = nn_recv($s, my $buf, 256);
    die nn_errno unless defined $bytes_received;

Receive a message from the socket $s and store it in the buffer $buf. Any bytes exceeding the length specified by the $length argument will be truncated.

Alternatively, nn_recv can allocate a message buffer instance for you. To do so, set the $length parameter to NN_MSG (the default).

The $flags argument, which defaults to 0, is a combination of the flags defined below:

  • NN_DONTWAIT

    Specifies that the operation should be performed in non-blocking mode. If the message cannot be received straight away, the function will fail with nn_errno set to EAGAIN.

If the function succeeds number of bytes in the message is returned. Otherwise, undef is returned and nn_errno is set to to one of the values defined below.

  • EBADF

    The provided socket is invalid.

  • ENOTSUP

    The operation is not supported by this socket type.

  • EFSM

    The operation cannot be performed on this socket at the moment because socket is not in the appropriate state. This error may occur with socket types that switch between several states.

  • EAGAIN

    Non-blocking mode was requested and there’s no message to receive at the moment.

  • EINTR

    The operation was interrupted by delivery of a signal before the message was received.

  • ETIMEDOUT

    Individual socket types may define their own specific timeouts. If such timeout is hit this error will be returned.

  • ETERM

    The library is terminating.

nn_sendmsg($s, $flags, $data1, $data2, ..., $dataN)

    my $bytes_sent = nn_sendmsg($s, 0, 'foo', 'bar');
    die nn_errno unless defined $bytes_sent;

This function is a fine-grained alternative to nn_send. It allows sending multiple data buffers that make up a single message without having to create another temporary buffer to hold the concatenation of the different message parts.

The scalars containing the data to be sent ($data1, $data2, ..., $dataN) can either be anything that can be used as a byte string in perl or a message buffer instance allocated by nn_allocmsg. In case of a message buffer instance the instance will be deallocated and invalidated by the nn_sendmsg function. The buffers will be a instances of NanoMsg::Raw::Message::Freed after the call to nn_sendmsg.

When using message buffer instances, only one buffer may be provided.

To which of the peers will the message be sent to is determined by the particular socket type.

The $flags argument is a combination of the flags defined below:

  • NN_DONTWAIT

    Specifies that the operation should be performed in non-blocking mode. If the message cannot be sent straight away, the function will fail with nn_errno set to EAGAIN.

If the function succeeds number of bytes in the message is returned. Otherwise, undef is returned and nn_errno is set to to one of the values defined below.

  • EBADF

    The provided socket is invalid.

  • ENOTSUP

    The operation is not supported by this socket type.

  • EFSM

    The operation cannot be performed on this socket at the moment because socket is not in the appropriate state. This error may occur with socket types that switch between several states.

  • EAGAIN

    Non-blocking mode was requested and the message cannot be sent at the moment.

  • EINTR

    The operation was interrupted by delivery of a signal before the message was sent.

  • ETIMEDOUT

    Individual socket types may define their own specific timeouts. If such timeout is hit this error will be returned.

  • ETERM

    The library is terminating.

In the future, nn_sendmsg might allow for sending along additional control data.

nn_recvmsg($s, $flags, $data1 => $len1, $data2 => $len2, ..., $dataN => $lenN)

    my $bytes_received = nn_recvmsg($s, 0, my $buf1 => 256, my $buf2 => 1024);
    die nn_errno unless defined $bytes_received;

This function is a fine-grained alternative to nn_recv. It allows receiving a single message into multiple data buffers of different sizes, eliminating the need to create copies of part of the received message in some cases.

The scalars in which to receive the message data ($buf1, $buf2, ..., $bufN) will be filled with as many bytes of data as is specified by the length parameter following them in the argument list ($len1, $len2, ..., $lenN).

Alternatively, nn_recvmsg can allocate a message buffer instance for you. To do so, set the length parameter of a buffer to to NN_MSG. In this case, only one receive buffer can be provided.

The $flags argument is a combination of the flags defined below:

  • NN_DONTWAIT

    Specifies that the operation should be performed in non-blocking mode. If the message cannot be received straight away, the function will fail with nn_errno set to EAGAIN.

In the future, nn_recvmsg might allow for receiving additional control data.

nn_allocmsg($size, $type)

    my $msg = nn_allocmsg(3, 0) or die nn_errno;
    $msg->copy('foo');
    nn_send($s, $msg);

Allocate a message of the specified $size to be sent in zero-copy fashion. The content of the message is undefined after allocation and it should be filled in by the user. While nn_send and nn_sendmsg allow to send arbitrary buffers, buffers allocated using nn_allocmsg can be more efficient for large messages as they allow for using zero-copy techniques.

The $type parameter specifies type of allocation mechanism to use. Zero is the default one. However, individual transport mechanisms may define their own allocation mechanisms, such as allocating in shared memory or allocating a memory block pinned down to a physical memory address. Such allocation, when used with the transport that defines them, should be more efficient than the default allocation mechanism.

If the function succeeds a newly allocated message buffer instance (an object instance of the class NanoMsg::Raw::Message) is returned. Otherwise, undef is returned and nn_errno is set to to one of the values defined below.

  • EINVAL

    Supplied allocation type is invalid.

  • ENOMEM

    Not enough memory to allocate the message.

nn_errno()

Returns value of errno after the last call to any nanomsg function in the current thread. This function can be used in the same way the $! global variable is be used for many other system and library calls.

The return value can be used in numeric context, for example to compare it with error code constants such as EAGAIN, or in a string context, to retrieve a textual message describing the error.

nn_strerror($errno)

Returns a textual representation of the error described by the nummeric $errno provided. It shouldn't normally be necessary to ever call this function, as using nn_errno in string context is basically equivalent to nn_strerror(nn_errno).

nn_device($s1, $s2)

    nn_device($s1, $s2) or die;

Starts a device to forward messages between two sockets. If both sockets are valid, the nn_device function loops and sends and messages received from $s1 to $s2 and vice versa. If only one socket is valid and the other is undef, nn_device works in a loopback mode — it loops and sends any messages received from the socket back to itself.

The function loops until it hits an error. In such case it returns undef and sets nn_errno to one of the values defined below.

  • EBADF

    One of the provided sockets is invalid.

  • EINVAL

    Either one of the socket is not an AF_SP_RAW socket; or the two sockets don’t belong to the same protocol; or the directionality of the sockets doesn’t fit (e.g. attempt to join two SINK sockets to form a device).

  • EINTR

    The operation was interrupted by delivery of a signal.

  • ETERM

    The library is terminating.

nn_term()

    nn_term();

To help with shutdown of multi-threaded programs the nn_term function is provided. It informs all the open sockets that process termination is underway.

If a socket is blocked inside a blocking function, such as nn_recv, it will be unblocked and the ETERM error will be returned to the user. Similarly, any subsequent attempt to invoke a socket function other than nn_close after nn_term was called will result in an ETERM error.

If waiting for NN_SNDFD or NN_RCVFD using a polling function, such as poll or select, the call will unblock with both NN_SNDFD and NN_RCVFD signaled.

The nn_term function itself is non-blocking.

WARNING

nanomsg, the c library this module is based on, is still in alpha stage!

Protocols

One-to-one protocol

Pair protocol is the simplest and least scalable scalability protocol. It allows scaling by breaking the application in exactly two pieces. For example, if a monolithic application handles both accounting and agenda of HR department, it can be split into two applications (accounting vs. HR) that are run on two separate servers. These applications can then communicate via PAIR sockets.

The downside of this protocol is that its scaling properties are very limited. Splitting the application into two pieces allows to scale to two servers. To add the third server to the cluster, application has to be split once more, say be separating HR functionality into hiring module and salary computation module. Whenever possible, try to use one of the more scalable protocols instead.

Socket Types

  • NN_PAIR

    Socket for communication with exactly one peer. Each party can send messages at any time. If the peer is not available or send buffer is full subsequent calls to nn_send will block until it’s possible to send the message.

Socket Options

No protocol-specific socket options are defined at the moment.

Request/reply protocol

This protocol is used to distribute the workload among multiple stateless workers.

Socket Types

  • NN_REQ

    Used to implement the client application that sends requests and receives replies.

  • NN_REP

    Used to implement the stateless worker that receives requests and sends replies.

Socket Options

  • NN_REQ_RESEND_IVL

    This option is defined on the full REQ socket. If a reply is not received in specified amount of milliseconds, the request will be automatically resent. The type of this option is int. Default value is 60000 (1 minute).

Publish/subscribe protocol

Broadcasts messages to multiple destinations.

Socket Types

  • NN_PUB

    This socket is used to distribute messages to multiple destinations. Receive operation is not defined.

  • NN_SUB

    Receives messages from the publisher. Only messages that the socket is subscribed to are received. When the socket is created there are no subscriptions and thus no messages will be received. Send operation is not defined on this socket. The socket can be connected to at most one peer.

Socket Options

  • NN_SUB_SUBSCRIBE

    Defined on full SUB socket. Subscribes for a particular topic. Type of the option is string.

  • NN_SUB_UNSUBSCRIBE

    Defined on full SUB socket. Unsubscribes from a particular topic. Type of the option is string.

Survey protocol

Allows to broadcast a survey to multiple locations and gather the responses.

Socket Types

  • NN_SURVEYOR

    Used to send the survey. The survey is delivered to all the connected respondents. Once the query is sent, the socket can be used to receive the responses. When the survey deadline expires, receive will return the ETIMEDOUT error.

  • NN_RESPONDENT

    Use to respond to the survey. Survey is received using receive function, response is sent using send function. This socket can be connected to at most one peer.

Socket Options

  • NN_SURVEYOR_DEADLINE

    Specifies how long to wait for responses to the survey. Once the deadline expires, receive function will return the ETIMEDOUT error and all subsequent responses to the survey will be silently dropped. The deadline is measured in milliseconds. Option type is int. Default value is 1000 (1 second).

Pipeline protocol

Fair queues messages from the previous processing step and load balances them among instances of the next processing step.

Socket Types

  • NN_PUSH

    This socket is used to send messages to a cluster of load-balanced nodes. Receive operation is not implemented on this socket type.

  • NN_PULL

    This socket is used to receive a message from a cluster of nodes. Send operation is not implemented on this socket type.

Socket Options

No protocol-specific socket options are defined at the moment.

Message bus protocol

Broadcasts messages from any node to all other nodes in the topology. The socket should never receives messages that it sent itself.

This pattern scales only to local level (within a single machine or within a single LAN). Trying to scale it further can result in overloading individual nodes with messages.

WARNING: For bus topology to function correctly, the user is responsible for ensuring that path from each node to any other node exists within the topology.

Raw (AF_SP_RAW) BUS socket never send the message to the peer it was received from.

Socket Types

  • NN_BUS

    Sent messages are distributed to all nodes in the topology. Incoming messages from all other nodes in the topology are fair-queued in the socket.

Socket Options

There are no options defined at the moment.

Transports

In-process transport

The in-process transport allows to send messages between threads or modules inside a process. In-process address is an arbitrary case-sensitive string preceded by inproc:// protocol specifier. All in-process addresses are visible from any module within the process. They are not visible from outside of the process.

The overall buffer size for an inproc connection is determined by the NN_RCVBUF socket option on the receiving end of the connection. The NN_SNDBUF socket option is ignored. In addition to the buffer, one message of arbitrary size will fit into the buffer. That way, even messages larger than the buffer can be transfered via inproc connection.

This transport's ID is NN_INPROC.

Inter-process transport

The inter-process transport allows for sending messages between processes within a single box. The implementation uses native IPC mechanism provided by the local operating system and the IPC addresses are thus OS-specific.

On POSIX-compliant systems, UNIX domain sockets are used and IPC addresses are file references. Note that both relative (ipc://test.ipc) and absolute (ipc:///tmp/test.ipc) paths may be used. Also note that access rights on the IPC files must be set in such a way that the appropriate applications can actually use them.

On Windows, named pipes are used for IPC. IPC address is an arbitrary case-insensitive string containing any character except for backslash. Internally, address ipc://test means that named pipe \\.\pipe\test will be used.

This transport's ID is NN_IPC.

TCP transport

The TCP transport allows for passing message over the network using simple reliable one-to-one connections. TCP is the most widely used transport protocol, it is virtually ubiquitous and thus the transport of choice for communication over the network.

When binding a TCP socket address of the form tcp://interface:port should be used. Port is the TCP port number to use. Interface is one of the following (optionally placed within square brackets):

  • Asterisk character (*) meaning all local network interfaces.

  • IPv4 address of a local network interface in numeric form (192.168.0.111).

  • IPv6 address of a local network interface in numeric form (::1).

  • Interface name, as defined by operating system.

When connecting a TCP socket address of the form tcp://interface;address:port should be used. Port is the TCP port number to use. Interface is optional and specifies which local network interface to use. If not specified, OS will select an appropriate interface itself. If specified it can be one of the following (optionally placed within square brackets):

  • IPv4 address of a local network interface in numeric form (192.168.0.111).

  • IPv6 address of a local network interface in numeric form (::1).

  • Interface name, as defined by operating system (eth0).

Finally, address specifies the remote address to connect to. It can be one of the following (optionally placed within square brackets):

  • IPv4 address of a remote network interface in numeric form (192.168.0.111).

  • IPv6 address of a remote network interface in numeric form (::1).

  • The DNS name of the remote box.

This transport's ID is NN_TCP.

Socket Options

  • NN_TCP_NODELAY

    This option, when set to 1, disables Nagle’s algorithm. It also disables delaying of TCP acknowledgments. Using this option improves latency at the expense of throughput. Type of this option is int. The default value is 0.

Constants

In addition to all the error constants and NN_ constants used in the documentation of the individual functions, protocols, and transports, the following constants are available:

  • NN_VERSION_CURRENT

    The current interface version.

  • NN_VERSION_REVISION

    The latest revision of the current interface.

  • NN_VERSION_AGE

    How many past interface versions are still supported.

SEE ALSO

  • The nanomsg C library documentation at http://nanomsg.org/v0.1/nanomsg.7.html

    The API this module provides is very close to the C library's interface, so the C documentation is likely to be useful to developers using Perl, too. Additionally, most of this module's documentation is copied from the C library documentation, so the upstream documentation might be somewhat more recent.

  • NanoMsg::Raw::Message

AUTHORS

  • Florian Ragwitz <rafl@debian.org>

  • Boris Zentner <bzm@2bz.de>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is Copyright (c) 2013 by Florian Ragwitz.

This is free software, licensed under:

  The MIT (X11) License



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