perlancar

NAME

Perinci::Examples - Various examples of Rinci metadata

VERSION

This document describes version 0.50 of Perinci::Examples (from Perl distribution Perinci-Examples), released on 2015-03-18.

SYNOPSIS

 use Perinci::Examples qw(delay);
 delay();

DESCRIPTION

This module and its submodules contain an odd mix of various functions, variables, and other code entities, along with their Rinci metadata. Mostly used for testing Rinci specification and the various Perinci modules.

Example scripts are put in a separate distribution (see Perinci::Examples::Bin) to make dependencies for this distribution minimal (e.g. not depending on Perinci::CmdLine) since this example module(s) are usually used in the tests of other modules.

A sample description

 verbatim
 line2

Another paragraph with bold, italic text.

FUNCTIONS

arg_default(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Demonstrate argument default value from default and/or schema.

Default value can be specified in the default property of argument specification, e.g.:

 args => {
     arg1 => { schema=>'str', default=>'blah' },
 },

or in the default clause of the argument's schema, e.g.:

 args => {
     arg1 => { schema=>['str', default=>'blah'] },
 },

or even both. The default property in argument specification takes precedence.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • a => int

    No defaults.

  • b => int (default: 2)

    Default from "default" property.

  • c => int (default: 3)

    Default from schema.

  • d => int (default: 4)

    Default from "default" property as well as schema.

    "Default" property overrides default value from schema.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

call_gen_array(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Call gen_array().

This is to test nested call (e.g. Log::Any::For::Package).

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • len* => int (default: 10)

    Array length.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (array[int])

call_randlog(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Call randlog().

This is to test nested call (e.g. Log::Any::For::Package).

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • max_level => int (default: 6)

    Maximum level.

  • min_level => int (default: 1)

    Minimum level.

  • n => int (default: 10)

    Number of log messages to produce.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

delay(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Sleep, by default for 10 seconds.

Can be used to test the time_limit property.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • n => int (default: 10)

    Number of seconds to sleep.

  • per_second => bool (default: 0)

    Whether to sleep(1) for n times instead of sleep(n).

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

dies() -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Dies tragically.

Can be used to test exception handling.

No arguments.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

err(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Return error response.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • code => int (default: 500)

    Error code to return.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

gen_array(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Generate an array of specified length.

Also tests result schema.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • len* => int (default: 10)

    Array length.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (array[int])

gen_hash(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Generate a hash with specified number of pairs.

Also tests result schema.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • pairs => int (default: 10)

    Number of pairs.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (array[int])

gen_random_bytes(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Generate random bytes of specified length.

This function can also be used to test binary data and Riap 1.2.

By default it will generate 1K worth of random garbage.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • len => int (default: 1024)

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (buf)

gen_sample_data(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Generate sample data of various form.

This function is first written to test Perinci::CmdLine::Lite's text formatting rules.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • form* => str

    • aos is array of scalar, e.g. [1,2,3].

    • aoaos is array of aos, e.g. [ [1,2,3], [4,5,6] ].

    • hos is hash of scalar (values), e.g. {a=>1, b=>2}.

    • aohos is array of array of hos, e.g. [{a=>1,b=>2}, {a=>2}].

    • hohos is hash of hos as values, e.g. {row1=>{a=>1,b=>2}, row2=>{}}.

    The aoaos and aohos forms are commonly used for table data.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

merge_hash(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Merge two hashes.

This function can be used to test passing nonscalar (hash) arguments.

This function also tests the x.perinci.sub.wrapper.disable_validate_args attribute so that Perinci::Sub::Wrapper does not generate argument validation code in the wrapper. Note that by adding # VALIDATE_ARG in the source code, the Dist::Zilla::Plugin::Rinci::Wrap already generates and embeds argument validation code in the source code, so duplication is not desired, thus the attribute.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • h1* => hash

    First hash (left-hand side).

  • h2* => hash

    First hash (right-hand side).

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (hash)

multi_status(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Example for result metadata property `results`.

This function might return 200, 207, or 500, randomly. It will set result metadata property results to contain per-item results. For more details, see the corresponding specification in results property in Rinci::resmeta.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • n => any (default: 5)

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

noop(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Do nothing, return original argument.

Will also return argument passed to it.

This function is also marked as pure, meaning it will not cause any side effects. Pure functions are safe to call directly in a transaction (without going through the transaction manager) or during dry-run mode.

This function is pure (produce no side effects).

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • arg => any

    Argument.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

randlog(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Produce some random Log::Any log messages.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • max_level => int (default: 6)

    Maximum level.

  • min_level => int (default: 1)

    Minimum level.

  • n => int (default: 10)

    Number of log messages to produce.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

return_args(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Return arguments.

Can be useful to check what arguments the function gets. Aside from normal arguments, sometimes function will receive special arguments (those prefixed with dash, -).

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • arg => any

    Argument.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

sum(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Sum numbers in array.

Examples:

 sum( array => [1, 2, 3]); # -> 6

First example.

 sum( array => [1.1, 2.1, 3.1], round => 1); # -> 6

Second example, using argv.

 sum( array => ["a"]); # ERROR 400

Third example, invalid arguments.

 sum();

Total numbers found in a file (4th example, bash).

 sum();

2-dice roll (5th example, perl).

This function can be used to test passing nonscalar (array) arguments.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • array* => array[float]

    Array.

  • round => bool (default: 0)

    Whether to round result to integer.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

test_args_as_array($a0, $a1, $a2) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

This function's metadata sets args_as property to array. This means it wants to accept argument as an array, like a regular Perl subroutine accepting positional arguments in @_.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • a0 => str

  • a1 => str

  • a2 => str

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

test_args_as_arrayref([$a0, $a1, $a2]) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

This function's metadata sets args_as property to arrayref. This is just like array, except the whole argument list is passed in $_[0].

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • a0 => str

  • a1 => str

  • a2 => str

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

test_args_as_hashref(\%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

This function's metadata sets args_as property to hashref. This is just like hash, except the whole argument hash is passed in $_[0].

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • a0 => str

  • a1 => str

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

test_binary(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Accept and send binary data.

This function sets its argument's schema type as buf which indicates the argument accepts binary data. Likewise it also sets its result's schema type as buf which says that function will return binary data.

The function just returns its argument.

Note that since the metadata also contains null ("\0") in the default property of the argument specification, the metadata is also not JSON-safe.

To pass binary data over JSON/Riap, you can use Riap version 1.2 and encode the argument with ":base64" suffix, e.g.:

 $res = Perinci::Access->new->request(
     call => "http://example.com/api/Perinci/Examples/test_binary",
     {v=>1.2, args=>{"data:base64"=>"/wA="}}); # send "\xff\0"

Without v=>1.2, encoded argument won't be decoded by the server.

To pass binary data on the command-line, you can use --ARG-base64 if the command-line library provides it.

To receive binary result over JSON/Riap, you can use Riap version 1.2 which will automatically encode binary data with base64 so it is safe when transformed as JSON. The client library will also decode the encoded result back to the original, so the whole process is transparent to you:

 $res = Perinci::Access->new->request(
     call => "http://example.com/api/Perinci/Examples/test_binary",
     {v=>1.2}); # => [200,"OK","\0\0\0",{}]

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • data => buf (default: "\0\0\0")

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (buf)

test_common_opts(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

This function has arguments with the same name as Perinci::CmdLine common options.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • action => str

  • cmd => str

  • debug => bool

  • format => str

  • format_options => str

  • help => bool

  • json => bool

  • log_level => str

  • perl => bool

  • quiet => bool

  • subcommands => str

  • trace => bool

  • verbose => bool

  • version => str

  • yaml => bool

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

test_completion(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Do nothing, return args.

This function is used to test argument completion.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • a1 => array[str]

    Array of strings, where the string has "in" schema clause.

    Completion library can perhaps complete from the in value and remember completed items when command-line option is repeated, e.g. in:

     --a1 <tab>

    it will complete from any in value, but in:

     --a1 apple --a1 <tab>

    it can exclude apple from the completion candidate.

    Currently the completion library Perinci::Sub::Complete does not do this though. Perhaps there can be an option to toggle this behavior.

  • a2 => array[str]

    Array with element_completion routine that generate random letter.

  • a3 => array[str]

    Array with element_completion routine that dies.

    See also s3.

  • arg0 => any

    Argument without any schema.

  • f0 => float

    Float with just "float" schema defined.

  • f1 => float

    Float with xmin/xmax on the schema.

    A completion library can attempt to provide some possible and incremental completion (e.g. if word is currently at one decimal digit like 1.2, it can provide completion of 1.20 .. 1.29).

  • i0 => int

    Integer with just "int" schema defined.

  • i1 => int

    Integer with min/xmax on the schema.

    A completion library (like Perinci::Sub::Complete) can generate a list of completion from the low end to the high end of the range, as long as it is not too long.

  • i2 => int

    Integer with large range min/max on the schema.

    Unlike in i1, a completion library probably won't generate a number sequence for this argument because they are considered too long (1000+ items).

  • s1 => str

    String with possible values in "in" schema clause.

  • s1b => str

    String with possible values in "in" schema clause, contains special characters.

    This argument is intended to test how special characters are escaped.

  • s2 => str

    String with completion routine that generate random letter.

  • s3 => str

    String with completion routine that dies.

    Completion should not display error (except perhaps under debugging). It should just provide no completion.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

test_dry_run() -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Will return 'wet' if not run under dry run mode, or 'dry' if dry run.

The way you detect whether we are running under dry-run mode is to check the special argument $args{-dry_run}.

This function supports dry-run operation.

No arguments.

Special arguments:

  • -dry_run => bool

    Pass -dry_run=>1 to enable simulation mode.

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

test_result_naked(%args) -> any

This function's metadata sets result_naked to true. This means function returns just the value (e.g. 42) and not with envelope (e.g. [200,"OK",42]). However, when served over network Riap protocol, the function wrapper Perinci::Sub::Wrapper can generate an envelope for the result, so the wrapped function wil still return [200,"OK",42].

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • a0 => str

  • a1 => str

Return value: (any)

test_validate_args(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

Does nothing, only here to test # VALIDATE_ARGS.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • a => int

  • b => str

  • h1 => hash

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (str)

undescribed_args(%args) -> [status, msg, result, meta]

This function has several undescribed args.

Originally added to see how peri-func-usage or Perinci::To::Text will display the usage or documentation for this function.

Arguments ('*' denotes required arguments):

  • arg1 => any

  • arg2 => any

  • arg3 => any

  • arg4 => any

Returns an enveloped result (an array).

First element (status) is an integer containing HTTP status code (200 means OK, 4xx caller error, 5xx function error). Second element (msg) is a string containing error message, or 'OK' if status is 200. Third element (result) is optional, the actual result. Fourth element (meta) is called result metadata and is optional, a hash that contains extra information.

Return value: (any)

SEE ALSO

Perinci

Perinci::Examples::Bin

HOMEPAGE

Please visit the project's homepage at https://metacpan.org/release/Perinci-Examples.

SOURCE

Source repository is at https://github.com/perlancar/perl-Perinci-Examples.

BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website https://rt.cpan.org/Public/Dist/Display.html?Name=Perinci-Examples

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.

AUTHOR

perlancar <perlancar@cpan.org>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

This software is copyright (c) 2015 by perlancar@cpan.org.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.