++ed by:
MARKSTOS MASAKI KES SYP MISHIN

14 PAUSE users
18 non-PAUSE users.

George S. Baugh
and 40 contributors

NAME

Selenium::Remote::WebElement - Representation of an HTML Element used by Selenium Remote Driver

VERSION

version 1.27

DESCRIPTION

Selenium Webdriver represents all the HTML elements as WebElements. This module provides a mechanism to represent them as objects & perform various actions on the related elements. This module should not be instantiated directly by the end user. Selenium::Remote::Driver instantiates this module when required. Typically, the find_element method in Selenium::Remote::Driver returns this object on which various element related operations can be carried out.

What is probably most useful on this page is the list of methods below that you can perform on an element once you've found one and S::R::D has made an instance of this for you.

CONSTRUCTOR

new

id

Required: Pass in a string representing the ID of the object. The string should be obtained from the response object of making one of the find_element calls from Selenium::Remote::Driver.

The attribute is also set up to handle spec compliant element response objects via its `coerce` such that any of the following will work and are all equivalent:

    my $old_elem = Selenium::Remote::WebElement->new(
        id => 1,
        driver => $driver
    );

    my $new_remote_elem = Selenium::Remote::WebElement->new(
        id => { ELEMENT => 1 },
        driver => $driver
    );

    my $new_spec_elem = Selenium::Remote::WebElement->new(
        id => { 'element-6066-11e4-a52e-4f735466cecf' => 1 },
        driver => $driver
    );

and then after instantiation, all three would give the following for `id`:

    print $elem->id; # prints 1
driver

Required: Pass in a Selenium::Remote::Driver instance or one of its subclasses. The WebElement needs the appropriate Driver session to execute its commands properly.

For typical usage of S::R::D and this module, none of this matters and it should Just Work without you having to worry about it at all. For further reading, the W3C spec strictly dictates the exact behavior.

FUNCTIONS

click

 Description:
    Click the element.

 Usage:
    $elem->click();

submit

 Description:
    Submit a FORM element. The submit command may also be applied to any element
    that is a descendant of a FORM element.

 Compatibility:
    On webdriver3 enabled servers, this uses a JS shim, which WILL NOT submit correctly unless your element is an <input>.
    Try clicking it if possible instead.

 Usage:
    $elem->submit();

send_keys

 Description:
    Send a sequence of key strokes to an element. If you want to send specific
    Keyboard events, then use the WDKeys module along with theis method. See e.g.
    for reference

 Input: 1
    Required:
        {ARRAY | STRING} - Array of strings or a string.

 Usage:
    $elem->send_keys('abcd', 'efg');
    $elem->send_keys('hijk');

    or

    # include the WDKeys module
    use Selenium::Remote::WDKeys;
    .
    .
    $elem->send_keys(KEYS->{'space'}, KEYS->{'enter'});

is_selected

 Description:
    Determine if an OPTION element, or an INPUT element of type checkbox or
    radiobutton is currently selected.

 Output:
    BOOLEAN - whether the element is selected

 Usage:
    $elem->is_selected();

set_selected

 Description:
    Select an OPTION element, or an INPUT element of type checkbox or radiobutton.
    Forces selected=1 on the element..

 Usage:
    $elem->set_selected();

toggle

 Description:
    Toggle whether an OPTION element, or an INPUT element of type checkbox or
    radiobutton is currently selected.

 Output:
    BOOLEAN - Whether the element is selected after toggling its state.

 Usage:
    $elem->toggle();

is_enabled

 Description:
    Determine if an element is currently enabled.

 Output:
    BOOLEAN - Whether the element is enabled.

 Usage:
    $elem->is_enabled();

get_element_location

 Description:
   Determine an element's location on the page. The point (0, 0) refers to the
   upper-left corner of the page.

 Compatibility:
    On WebDriver 3 enabled servers, this is an alias for get_element_rect().

 Output:
    HASH - The X and Y coordinates for the element on the page.

 Usage:
    $elem->get_element_location();

 This method is DEPRECATED on webdriver3 enabled servers.

get_size

 Description:
    Determine an element's size in pixels. The size will be returned with width
    and height properties.

 Compatibility:
    On WebDriver 3 enabled servers, this is an alias for get_element_rect().

 Output:
    HASH - The width and height of the element, in pixels.

 Usage:
    $elem->get_size();

 This method is DEPRECATED on webdriver3 enabled servers.

get_element_rect

Get the element's size AND location in a hash.

Example Output:

    { x => 0, y => 0, height => 10, width => 10 }

get_element_location_in_view

 Description:
    Determine an element's location on the screen once it has been scrolled
    into view.

    Note: This is considered an internal command and should only be used to
    determine an element's location for correctly generating native events.

 Compatibility:
    On Webdriver3 servers, we have to implement this with a JS shim.
    This means in some contexts, you won't get any position returned, as the element isn't considered an element internally.
    You may have to go up the element stack to find the element that actually has the bounding box.

 Output:
    {x:number, y:number} The X and Y coordinates for the element on the page.

 Usage:
    $elem->get_element_location_in_view();

get_tag_name

 Description:
    Query for an element's tag name.

 Output:
    STRING - The element's tag name, as a lowercase string.

 Usage:
    $elem->get_tag_name();

clear

 Description:
    Clear a TEXTAREA or text INPUT element's value.

 Usage:
    $elem->clear();

get_attribute

 Description:
    Get the value of an element's attribute.

 Compatibility:
    In older webDriver, this actually got the value of an element's property.
    If you want to get the initial condition (e.g. the values in the tag hardcoded in HTML), pass 1 as the second argument.

    Or, set $driver->{emulate_jsonwire} = 0 to not have to pass the extra arg.

    This can only done on WebDriver 3 enabled servers.

 Input: 2
    Required:
        STRING - name of the attribute of the element
    Optional:
        BOOLEAN - "I really mean that I want the initial condition, quit being so compatible!!!"


 Output:
    {STRING | NULL} The value of the attribute, or null if it is not set on the element.

 Usage:
    $elem->get_attribute('name',1);

get_property

Gets the Current Value of an element's attribute.

Takes a named property as an argument.

Only available on WebDriver 3 enabled servers.

get_value

 Description:
    Query for the value of an element, as determined by its value attribute.

 Output:
    {STRING | NULL} The element's value, or null if it doesn't have a value attribute.

 Usage:
    $elem->get_value();

get_style

is_displayed

 Description:
    Determine if an element is currently displayed.
    Note: This does *not* tell you an element's 'visibility' property; as it still takes up space in the DOM and is therefore considered 'displayed'.

 Output:
    BOOLEAN - Whether the element is displayed.

 Usage:
    $elem->is_displayed();

is_hidden

 Description:
    Determine if an element is currently hidden.

 Output:
    BOOLEAN - Whether the element is hidden.

 Usage:
    $elem->is_hidden();

drag

Alias for Selenium::ActionChains::drag_and_drop().

Provide element you wish to drag to as argument.

    my $target = $driver->find_element('receptacle','id');
    my $subject = $driver->find_element('thingy','id');
    $subject->drag($target);

get_text

 Description:
    Get the innerText of the element.

 Output:
    STRING - innerText of an element

 Usage:
    $elem->get_text();

get_css_attribute

 Description:
    Query the value of an element's computed CSS property. The CSS property to
    query should be specified using the CSS property name, not the JavaScript
    property name (e.g. background-color instead of backgroundColor).

 Input: 1
    Required:
        STRING - name of the css-attribute

 Output:
    STRING - Value of the css attribute

 Usage:
    $elem->get_css_attribute('background-color');

describe

 Description:
    Describe the identified element

 Usage:
    $elem->describe();

 Note: DEPRECATED as of 2.42.2 -- use get_text, get_value, is_displayed, or
 whatever appropriate WebElement function you need instead

 Entirely unsupported on WebDriver 3 enabled servers.

screenshot

 Description:
    Get a screenshot of the visible region that is a subset of the element's bounding box as a base64 encoded image.

 Compatibility:
    Only available on Webdriver3 enabled selenium servers.

 Input (optional):
    $scroll_into_view - BOOLEAN default true.  If false, will not scroll the element into the viewport first.
    Failing to do so may result in an image being cropped partially or entirely.

 Output:
    STRING - base64 encoded image

 Usage:
    print $element->screenshot();

To conveniently write the screenshot to a file, see "capture_screenshot".

capture_screenshot

 Description:
    Capture a screenshot of said element and save as a PNG to provided file name.

 Compatibility:
    Only available on Webdriver3 enabled selenium servers.

 Input (optional):
    $scroll_into_view - BOOLEAN default true.  If false, will not scroll the element into the viewport first.
    Failing to do so may result in an image being cropped partially or entirely.

 Output:
    TRUE - (Screenshot is written to file)

 Usage:
    $element->capture_screenshot($filename);

SEE ALSO

Please see those modules/websites for more information related to this module.

BUGS

Please report any bugs or feature requests on the bugtracker website https://github.com/teodesian/Selenium-Remote-Driver/issues

When submitting a bug or request, please include a test-file or a patch to an existing test-file that illustrates the bug or desired feature.

AUTHORS

Current Maintainers:

  • Daniel Gempesaw <gempesaw@gmail.com>

  • Emmanuel Peroumalnaïk <peroumalnaik.emmanuel@gmail.com>

Previous maintainers:

  • Luke Closs <cpan@5thplane.com>

  • Mark Stosberg <mark@stosberg.com>

Original authors:

  • Aditya Ivaturi <ivaturi@gmail.com>

COPYRIGHT AND LICENSE

Copyright (c) 2010-2011 Aditya Ivaturi, Gordon Child

Copyright (c) 2014-2017 Daniel Gempesaw

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.