++ed by:
EMAZEP MHOWARD STAUGAARD KWAKWA TOBYINK

11 PAUSE users
15 non-PAUSE users.

Artur Khabibullin
and 4 contributors

NAME

Raisin - A REST API microframework for Perl.

SYNOPSIS

    use HTTP::Status qw(:constants);
    use List::Util qw(max);
    use Raisin::API;
    use Types::Standard qw(HashRef Any Int Str);

    my %USERS = (
        1 => {
            first_name => 'Darth',
            last_name => 'Wader',
            password => 'deathstar',
            email => 'darth@deathstar.com',
        },
        2 => {
            first_name => 'Luke',
            last_name => 'Skywalker',
            password => 'qwerty',
            email => 'l.skywalker@jedi.com',
        },
    );

    middleware 'CrossOrigin',
        origins => '*',
        methods => [qw/DELETE GET HEAD OPTIONS PATCH POST PUT/],
        headers => [qw/accept authorization content-type api_key_token/];

    plugin 'Swagger';

    swagger_setup(
        title => 'A POD synopsis API',
        description => 'An example of API documentation.',
        #terms_of_service => '',

        contact => {
            name => 'Artur Khabibullin',
            url => 'http://github.com/khrt',
            email => 'rtkh@cpan.org',
        },

        license => {
            name => 'Perl license',
            url => 'http://dev.perl.org/licenses/',
        },
    );

    desc 'Users API';
    resource users => sub {
        summary 'List users';
        params(
            optional('start', type => Int, default => 0, desc => 'Pager (start)'),
            optional('count', type => Int, default => 10, desc => 'Pager (count)'),
        );
        get sub {
            my $params = shift;

            my @users
                = map { { id => $_, %{ $USERS{$_} } } }
                  sort { $a <=> $b } keys %USERS;

            my $max_count = scalar(@users) - 1;
            my $start = $params->{start} > $max_count ? $max_count : $params->{start};
            my $count = $params->{count} > $max_count ? $max_count : $params->{count};

            my @slice = @users[$start .. $count];
            { data => \@slice }
        };

        summary 'List all users at once';
        get 'all' => sub {
            my @users
                = map { { id => $_, %{ $USERS{$_} } } }
                  sort { $a <=> $b } keys %USERS;
            { data => \@users }
        };

        summary 'Create new user';
        params(
            requires('user', type => HashRef, desc => 'User object', group {
                requires('first_name', type => Str, desc => 'First name'),
                requires('last_name', type => Str, desc => 'Last name'),
                requires('password', type => Str, desc => 'User password'),
                optional('email', type => Str, default => undef, regex => qr/.+\@.+/, desc => 'User email'),
            }),
        );
        post sub {
            my $params = shift;

            my $id = max(keys %USERS) + 1;
            $USERS{$id} = $params->{user};

            res->status(HTTP_CREATED);
            { success => 1 }
        };

        desc 'Actions on the user';
        params requires('id', type => Int, desc => 'User ID');
        route_param 'id' => sub {
            summary 'Show user';
            get sub {
                my $params = shift;
                $USERS{ $params->{id} };
            };

            summary 'Delete user';
            del sub {
                my $params = shift;
                delete $USERS{ $params->{id} };
                res->status(HTTP_NO_CONTENT);
                undef;
            };
        };
    };

    run;

DESCRIPTION

Raisin is a REST API microframework for Perl. It's designed to run on Plack, providing a simple DSL to develop RESTful APIs easily. It was inspired by Grape.

CPAN version

FUNCTIONS

API DESCRIPTION

resource

Adds a route to an application.

    resource user => sub { ... };

route_param

Defines a route parameter as a resource id which can be anything if type isn't specified for it.

    route_param id => sub { ... };

del, get, patch, post, put

Shortcuts to add a route restricted to the corresponding HTTP method.

    get sub { 'GET' };

    del 'all' => sub { 'OK' };

    params(
        requires('id', type => Int),
        optional('key', type => Str),
    );
    get sub { 'GET' };

    desc 'Put data';
    params(
        required('id', type => Int),
        optional('name', type => Str),
    );
    put 'all' => sub {
        'PUT'
    };

desc

Adds a description to resource or any of the HTTP methods. Useful for OpenAPI as it's shown there as a description of an action.

    desc 'Some long explanation about an action';
    put sub { ... };

    desc 'Some exaplanation about a group of actions',
    resource => 'user' => sub { ... }

summary

Same as "desc" but shorter.

    summary 'Some summary';
    put sub { ... };

tags

Tags can be used for logical grouping of operations by resources or any other qualifier. Using in API description.

    tags 'delete', 'user';
    delete sub { ... };

By default tags are added automatically based on it's namespace but you always can overwrite it using the function.

entity

Describes response object which will be used to generate OpenAPI description.

    entity 'MusicApp::Entity::Album';
    get {
        my $albums = $schema->resultset('Album');
        present data => $albums, with => 'MusicApp::Entity::Album';
    };

params

Defines validations and coercion options for your parameters. Can be applied to any HTTP method and/or "route_param" to describe parameters.

    params(
        requires('name', type => Str),
        optional('start', type => Int, default => 0),
        optional('count', type => Int, default => 10),
    );
    get sub { ... };

    params(
        requires('id', type => Int, desc => 'User ID'),
    );
    route_param 'id' => sub { ... };

For more see "Validation-and-coercion" in Raisin.

api_default_format

Specifies default API format mode when formatter isn't specified by API user. E.g. if URI is asked without an extension (json, yaml) or Accept header isn't specified the default format will be used.

Default value: YAML.

    api_default_format 'json';

See also "API-FORMATS" in Raisin.

api_format

Restricts API to use only specified formatter to serialize and deserialize data.

Already exists Raisin::Encoder::JSON, Raisin::Encoder::YAML, and Raisin::Encoder::Text, but you can always register your own using "register_encoder".

    api_format 'json';

See also "API-FORMATS" in Raisin.

api_version

Sets up an API version header.

    api_version 1.23;

plugin

Loads a Raisin module. A module options may be specified after the module name. Compatible with Kelp modules.

    plugin 'Swagger';

middleware

Adds a middleware to your application.

    middleware '+Plack::Middleware::Session' => { store => 'File' };
    middleware '+Plack::Middleware::ContentLength';
    middleware 'Runtime'; # will be loaded Plack::Middleware::Runtime

mount

Mounts multiple API implementations inside another one. These don't have to be different versions, but may be components of the same API.

In RaisinApp.pm:

    package RaisinApp;

    use Raisin::API;

    api_format 'json';

    mount 'RaisinApp::User';
    mount 'RaisinApp::Host';

    1;

register_decoder

Registers a third-party parser (decoder).

    register_decoder(xml => 'My::Parser::XML');

See also Raisin::Decoder.

register_encoder

Registers a third-party formatter (encoder).

    register_encoder(xml => 'My::Formatter::XML');

See also Raisin::Encoder.

run

Returns the PSGI application.

INSIDE ROUTE

req

Provides quick access to the Raisin::Request object for the current route.

Use req to get access to request headers, params, etc.

    use DDP;
    p req->headers;
    p req->params;

    say req->header('X-Header');

See also Plack::Request.

res

Provides quick access to the Raisin::Response object for the current route.

Use res to set up response parameters.

    res->status(403);
    res->headers(['X-Application' => 'Raisin Application']);

See also Plack::Response.

param

Returns request parameters. Without an argument will return an array of all input parameters. Otherwise it will return the value of the requested parameter.

Returns Hash::MultiValue object.

    say param('key'); # -> value
    say param(); # -> { key => 'value', foo => 'bar' }

include_missing

Returns all declared parameters even if there is no value for a param.

See "Declared-parameters" in Raisin.

session

Returns psgix.session hash. When it exists, you can retrieve and store per-session data.

    # store param
    session->{hello} = 'World!';

    # read param
    say session->{name};

present

Raisin hash a built-in present method, which accepts two arguments: an object to be presented and an options associated with it. The options hash may include with key, which is defined the entity to expose. See Raisin::Entity.

    my $artists = $schema->resultset('Artist');

    present data => $artists, with => 'MusicApp::Entity::Artist';
    present count => $artists->count;

Raisin::Entity supports DBIx::Class and Rose::DB::Object.

For details see examples in examples/music-app and Raisin::Entity.

ALLOWED METHODS

When you add a route for a resource, a route for the OPTIONS method will also be added. The response to an OPTIONS request will include an "Allow" header listing the supported methods.

    get 'count' => sub {
        { count => $count };
    };

    params(
        requires('num', type => Int, desc => 'Value to add to the count.'),
    );
    put 'count' => sub {
        my $params = shift;
        $count += $params->{num};
        { count: $count };
    };


    curl -v -X OPTIONS http://localhost:5000/count

    > OPTIONS /count HTTP/1.1
    > Host: localhost:5000
    >
    * HTTP 1.0, assume close after body
    < HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
    < Allow: GET, OPTOINS, PUT

If a request for a resource is made with an unsupported HTTP method, an HTTP 405 (Method Not Allowed) response will be returned.

    curl -X DELETE -v http://localhost:3000/count

    > DELETE /count HTTP/1.1
    > Host: localhost:5000
    >
    * HTTP 1.0, assume close after body
    < HTTP/1.1 405 Method Not Allowed
    < Allow: OPTIONS, GET, PUT

PARAMETERS

Request parameters are available through the params HASH. This includes GET, POST and PUT parameters, along with any named parameters you specify in your route strings.

Parameters are automatically populated from the request body on POST and PUT for form input, JSON and YAML content-types.

The request:

    curl localhost:5000/data -H Content-Type:application/json -d '{"id": "14"}'

The Raisin endpoint:

    post data => sub { param('id') };

Multipart POSTs and PUTs are supported as well.

In the case of conflict between either of:

  • path parameters;

  • GET, POST and PUT parameters;

  • contents of request body on POST and PUT;

Path parameters have precedence.

Query string and body parameters will be merged (see "parameters" in Plack::Request)

Declared parameters

Raisin allows you to access only the parameters that have been declared by you in "params" in Raisin block.

By default you can get all declared parameter as a first argument passed to your route subroutine.

Application:

    api_format 'json';

    post data => sub {
        my $params = shift;
        { data => $params };
    };

Request:

    curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" localhost:5000/signup -d '{"id": 42}'

Response:

    { "data": nil }

Once we add parameters block, Raisin will start return only the declared parameters.

Application:

    api_format 'json';

    params(
        requires('id', type => Int),
        optional('email', type => Str)
    );
    post data => sub {
        my $params = shift;
        { data => $params };
    };

Request:

    curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" localhost:5000/signup -d '{"id": 42, "key": "value"}'

Response:

    { "data": { "id": 42 } }

By default declared parameters don't contain parameters which have no value. If you want to return all parameters you can use the include_missing function.

Application:

    api_format 'json';

    params(
        requires('id', type => Int),
        optional('email', type => Str)
    );
    post data => sub {
        my $params = shift;
        { data => include_missing($params) };
    };

Request:

    curl -X POST -H "Content-Type: application/json" localhost:5000/signup -d '{"id": 42, "key": "value"}'

Response:

    { "data": { "id": 42, "email": null } }

Validation and coercion

You can define validations and coercion options for your parameters using a "params" in Raisin block.

Parameters can requires value or can be optional. optional parameters can have default value.

    params(
        requires('name', type => Str),
        optional('count', type => Int, default => 10),
    );
    get sub {
        my $params = shift;
        "$params->{count}: $params->{name}";
    };

Note that default values will NOT be passed through to any validation options specified.

Available arguments:

  • name

  • type

  • default

  • desc

  • regex

  • in

Nested Parameters

Hash

Use a keyword group to define a group of parameters which is enclosed to the parent HashRef parameter.

    params(
        requires('name', type => HashRef, group {
            requires('first_name', type => Str),
            requires('last_name', type => Str),
        })
    )

Array

Use ArrayRef[*] types from your compatible type library to define arrays.

    requires('list', type => ArrayRef[Int], desc => 'List of integers')

Types

Raisin supports Moo(se)-compatible type constraint so you can use any of the Moose, Moo or Type::Tiny type constraints.

By default Raisin depends on Type::Tiny and it's Types::Standard type contraint library.

You can create your own types as well. See Type::Tiny::Manual and Moose::Manual::Types.

HOOKS

This blocks can be executed before or/and after every API call, using before, after, before_validation and after_validation.

Before and after callbacks execute in the following order:

  • before

  • before_validation

  • after_validation

  • after

The block applies to every API call

    before sub {
        my $self = shift;
        say $self->req->method . "\t" . $self->req->path;
    };

    after_validation sub {
        my $self = shift;
        say $self->res->body;
    };

Steps 3 and 4 only happen if validation succeeds.

API FORMATS

By default, Raisin supports YAML, JSON, and TEXT content types. Default format is YAML.

Response format can be determined by Accept header or route extension.

Serialization takes place automatically. So, you do not have to call encode_json in each JSON API implementation.

Your API can declare to support only one serializator by using "api_format" in Raisin.

Custom formatters for existing and additional types can be defined with a Raisin::Encoder/Raisin::Decoder.

JSON

Call JSON::encode_json and JSON::decode_json.

YAML

Call YAML::Dump and YAML::Load.

Text

Call Data::Dumper->Dump if output data is not a string.

The order for choosing the format is the following.

  • Use the route extension.

  • Use the value of the Accept header.

  • Fallback to default.

LOGGING

Raisin has a built-in logger and supports for Log::Dispatch. You can enable it by:

    plugin 'Logger', outputs => [['Screen', min_level => 'debug']];

Or use Raisin::Logger with a fallback option:

    plugin 'Logger', fallback => 1;

Exports log subroutine.

    log(debug => 'Debug!');
    log(warn => 'Warn!');
    log(error => 'Error!');

See Raisin::Plugin::Logger.

API DOCUMENTATION

Raisin script

You can see application routes with the following command:

    $ raisin examples/pod-synopsis-app/darth.pl
    GET     /user
    GET     /user/all
    POST    /user
    GET     /user/:id
    DELETE  /user/:id
    PUT     /user/:id
    GET     /echo

Including parameters:

    $ raisin --params examples/pod-synopsis-app/darth.pl
    GET     /user
       start Int{0}
       count Int{10}
    GET     /user/all
    POST    /user
      *name     Str
      *password Str
    email    Str
    GET     /user/:id
      *id Int
    DELETE  /user/:id
      *id Int
    PUT     /user/:id
      *id Int
    GET     /echo
      *data Any{ёй}

OpenAPI/Swagger

Swagger compatible API documentations.

    plugin 'Swagger';

Documentation will be available on http://<url>/swagger.json URL. So you can use this URL in Swagger UI.

See Raisin::Plugin::Swagger.

MIDDLEWARE

You can easily add any Plack middleware to your application using middleware keyword. See "middleware" in Raisin.

PLUGINS

Raisin can be extended using custom modules. Each new module must be a subclass of the Raisin::Plugin namespace. Modules' job is to initialize and register new methods into the web application class.

For more see "plugin" in Raisin and Raisin::Plugin.

TESTING

See Plack::Test, Test::More and etc.

    my $app = Plack::Util::load_psgi("$Bin/../script/raisinapp.pl");

    test_psgi $app, sub {
        my $cb  = shift;
        my $res = $cb->(GET '/user');

        subtest 'GET /user' => sub {
            if (!is $res->code, 200) {
                diag $res->content;
                BAIL_OUT 'FAILED!';
            }
            my $got = Load($res->content);
            isdeeply $got, $expected, 'Data!';
        };
    };

DEPLOYING

Deploying a Raisin application is done the same way any other Plack application is deployed:

    $ plackup -E deployment -s Starman app.psgi

Kelp

    use Plack::Builder;
    use RaisinApp;
    use KelpApp;

    builder {
        mount '/' => KelpApp->new->run;
        mount '/api/rest' => RaisinApp->new;
    };

Dancer

    use Plack::Builder;
    use Dancer ':syntax';
    use Dancer::Handler;
    use RaisinApp;

    my $dancer = sub {
        setting appdir => '/home/dotcloud/current';
        load_app 'My::App';
        Dancer::App->set_running_app('My::App');
        my $env = shift;
        Dancer::Handler->init_request_headers($env);
        my $req = Dancer::Request->new(env => $env);
        Dancer->dance($req);
    };

    builder {
        mount '/' => $dancer;
        mount '/api/rest' => RaisinApp->new;
    };

Mojolicious::Lite

    use Plack::Builder;
    use RaisinApp;

    builder {
        mount '/' => builder {
            enable 'Deflater';
            require 'my_mojolicious-lite_app.pl';
        };

        mount '/api/rest' => RaisinApp->new;
    };

See also Plack::Builder, Plack::App::URLMap.

EXAMPLES

Raisin comes with three instance in example directory:

pod-synopsis-app

Basic example.

music-app

Shows the possibility of using "present" in Raisin with DBIx::Class and Rose::DB::Object.

sample-app

Shows an example of complex application.

ROADMAP

  • Versioning support;

  • Mount API's in any place of resource block;

GITHUB

https://github.com/khrt/Raisin

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This module was inspired both by Grape and Kelp, which was inspired by Dancer, which in its turn was inspired by Sinatra.

AUTHOR

Artur Khabibullin - rtkh@cpan.org

LICENSE

This module and all the modules in this package are governed by the same license as Perl itself.