Email::Sender::Manual::QuickStart - how to start using Email::Sender right now


version 0.091560_002


Let's Send Some Mail!

No messing around, let's just send some mail.

  use strict;
  use Email::Sender::Simple qw(sendmail);
  use Email::Simple;
  use Email::Simple::Creator;

  my $email = Email::Simple->create(
    header => [
      To      => '"Xavier Q. Ample" <>',
      From    => '"Bob Fishman" <>',
      Subject => "don't forget to *enjoy the sauce*",
    body => "This message is short, but at least it's cheap.\n",


That's it. Your message goes out into the internet and tries to get delivered to

In the example above, $email could have been a lot of different things. If Email::Abstract can understand it, it could go there. Email::Sender::Simple tries to make a good guess about how to send the message. It will usually try to use the sendmail program on unix-like systems and to use SMTP on Windows. You can specify a transport, if you need to, but normally that shouldn't be an issue. (See {citation needed}, though, for more information.)

Also note that we imported and used a sendmail routine in the example above. This is exactly the same as saying:


...but it's a lot easier to type. You can use either one.

envelope information

We didn't have to tell Email::Sender::Simple where to send the message. If you don't specify recipients, it will use all the email addresses it can find in the To and Cc headers by default. It will use Email::Address to parse those fields. Similarly, if no sender is specified, it will use the first address found in the From header.

In most email transmission systems, though, the headers are not by necessity tied to the addresses used as the sender and recipients. Being able to set those distinctly is important, and Email::Sender::Simple lets you do this:

  sendmail($email, { to => [ $to_1, $to_2 ], from => $sender });

in case of error

When the message is sent successfully (at least on to its next hop), sendmail will return a true value -- specifically, an Email::Sender::Success object. This object only rarely has much use. What's more useful is what happens if the message can't be sent.

If there is an error sending the message, an exception will be thrown. It will be an object belonging to the class Email::Sender::Failure. This object will have a message attribute that should describe the nature of the failure. There are several specialized forms of failure, like Email::Sender::Failure::Multi, which is thrown when more than one error is encountered when trying to send. You don't need to know about these to use Email::Sender::Simple, though. All you need to know is that sendmail returns true on success and dies on failure.

If you'd rather not have to catch exceptions for failure to send mail, you can use the try_to_send method, which can be imported as try_to_sendmail. This method will return just false on failure to send mail.

For example:

  Email::Sender::Simple->try_to_send($email, { ... });

  use Email::Sender::Simple qw(try_to_sendmail);
  try_to_sendmail($email, { ... });

Some Email::Sender transports can signal success if some, but not all, recipients could be reached. Email::Sender::Simple does its best to ensure that this never happens. When you are using Email::Sender::Simple, mail should either be sent or not. Partial success should never occur.

Picking a Transport

passing in your own transport

If Email::Sender::Simple doesn't pick the transport you want, or if you have more specific needs, you can specify a transport in several ways. The simplest is to build a transport object and pass it in. You can read more about transports elsewhere. For now, we'll just assume that you need to send mail via SMTP on an unusual port. You can send mail like this:

  my $transport = Email::Sender::Transport::SMTP->new({
    host => '',
    port => 2525,

  sendmail($email, { transport => $transport });

Now, instead of guessing at what transport to use, Email::Sender::Simple will use the one you provided. This transport will have to be specified for each call to sendmail, so you might want to look at other options, which follow.

specifying transport in the environment

If you have a program that makes several calls to Email::Sender::Simple, and you need to run this program using a different mailserver, you can set environment variables to change the default. For example:

  $ export
  $ export EMAIL_SENDER_TRANSPORT_port=2525

  $ perl your-program

It is important to note that if you have set the default transport by using the environment, no subsequent transport args to sendmail will be respected. If you set the default transport via the environment, that's it. Everything will use that transport.

This is extremely valuable behavior, as it allows you to audit ever message that would be sent by a program by running something like this:

  $ perl your-program

In that example, any message sent via Email::Sender::Simple would be delivered to a maildir in the current directory.

subclassing to change the default transport

If you want to use a library that will behave like Email::Sender::Simple but with a different default transport, you can subclass Email::Sender::Simple and replace the build_default_transport method.


Email::Sender::Simple makes it very, very easy to test code that sends email. The simplest way is to do something like this:

  use Test::More;
  use YourCode;


  my @deliveries = Email::Sender::Simple->default_transport->deliveries;

Now you've got an array containing every delivery performed through Email::Sender::Simple, in order. Because you set the transport via the environment, no other code will be been able to force a different transport.

When testing code that forks, Email::Sender::Transport::SQLite can be used to allow every child process to deliver to a single, easy to inspect destination database.


This is awesome! Where can I learn more?

Have a look at Email::Sender::Manual, where all the manual's documents are listed. You can also look at the documentation for Email::Sender::Simple and the various Email::Sender::Transport classes.


  Ricardo Signes <>


This software is copyright (c) 2009 by Ricardo Signes.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as perl itself.