Twitter::API::Trait::Migration - Migration support Net::Twitter/::Lite users


version 1.0006


Twitter::API is a rewrite of Net::Twitter. It's leaner, lighter, and has faster—fewer dependencies, and less baggage. This trait helps Net::Twitter and Net::Twitter::Lite users migrate to Twitter::API by providing Net::Twitter compatible behavior where possible and warning politely where code should be changed.

Migrating from Net::Twitter

Twitter::API requires a minimum perl version of 5.14.1. Make sure you have that.

Just change your constructor call:

        my $client = Net::Twitter->new(
                traits => [ qw/API::RESTv1_1 OAuth RetryOnError/ ],
                consumer_key        => $key,
                consumer_secret     => $secret,
                access_token        => $token,
                access_token_secret => $token_secret,


        my $client = Twitter::API->new_with_traits(
                traits => [ qw/Migration ApiMethods RetryOnError/ ],
                consumer_key        => $key,
                consumer_secret     => $secret,
                access_token        => $token,
                access_token_secret => $token_secret,


  • replace new with new_with_traits

  • replace trait API::RESTv1_1 with ApiMethods

  • drop trait OAuth, Twitter::API's core includes it

  • add the Migration trait so Twitter::API will handle oauth key management in a Net::Twitter compatible way and warn


Twitter::API supports the following traits:

ApiMethods is a direct replacement for Net::Twitter's API::RESTv1_1 trait.

Net::Twitter's InflateObjects trait will be released as a separate distribution to minimize Twitter::API's dependencies.

If you are using the Net::Twitter's WrapResults trait, Twitter::API provides a better way to access the what it provides. In list context, API calls return both the API call results and a Twitter::API::Context object that provides the same accessors and attributes WrapResult provided, including the result accessor.

So, if you had:

    my $r = $client->home_timeline;

You can change that to:

    my ( $result, $context ) = $client->home_timeline;

Or for the smallest change to your code:

    my ( undef, $r ) = $client->home_timeline;
    $r->result; i            # same as before
    $r->rate_limit_remaning; # same as before

However, there is migration support for WrapResult. Call the constructor with option wrap_result => 1 and Twitter::API will return the context object, only, for API calls. This should give you the same behavior you had with WrapResult while you modify your code. Twitter::API will warn when this option is used. You may disale warnings with $ENV{TWITTER_API_NO_MIGRATION_WARNINGS} = 1.

If you are using any other Net::Twitter traits, please contact the author of Twitter::API. Additional traits may be added to Twitter::API or released as separate distributions.

If you are using decode_html_entities => 1 in Net::Twitter, drop that option and add trait DecodeHtmlEntities. Traits AppAuth and RetryOnError provide the same functionality in Twitter::API as their Net::Twitter counterparts. So, no changes required, there, if you're using them. (Although there is a change to one of AppAuth's methods. See the "OAuth changes" discussion.)

NormalizeBooleans is something you'll probably want. See the NormalizeBooleans documentation.

Enchilda just bundles ApiMethods, NormalizeBooleans, RetryOnError, and DecodeHtmlEntities.

Other constructor options

Drop option ssl => 1. It is no longer necessary. By default, all connections use SSL.

If you are setting useragent_lass and/or useragent_args to customize the user agent, just construct your own pass it to new with user_agent => $custom_user_agent.

If you are using ua to set a custom user agent, the attribute name has changed to usre_agent. So, pass it to new with user_agent => $custom_user_agent.

By default, Twitter::API uses HTTP::Thin as its user agent. You should be able to use any user agent you like, as long as it has a request method that takes an HTTP::Request and returns an HTTP::Response.

If you used clientname, clientver, clienturl, or useragent, see "agent" in Twitter::API and "default_headers" in Twitter::API. If all you're after is a custom User-Agent header, just pass agent => $user_agent_string. It will be used for both User-Agent header and the X-Twitter-Client header on requests. If you want to include your own application version and url, pass default_headers => \%my_request_headers.

OAuth changes

Net::Twitter saved request and access tokens in the client instance as part of the 3-legged OAuth handshake. That was a poor design decision. Twitter::API returns request and access tokens to the caller. It is the caller's responsibility to store and cache them appropriately. Hovever, transitional support is provided, with client instance storage, so your code can run unmodified while you make the transition.

The following methods exist only for migration from Net::Twitter and will be removed in a future release. A warning is issued on each call to these methods. To disable the warnings, set $ENV{TWITTER_API_NO_MIGRATION_WARNINGS} = 1.

If you are using the AppAuth trait, replace request_access_token calls with oauth2_token calls. Method oauth2_token does not set the access_token attribute. Method request_access_token is provided for transitional support, only. It warns like the OAuth methods discussed above, and it sets the access_token attribute so existing code should work as expected during migration. It will be removed in a future release.

Migrating from Net::Twitter::Lite

The discussion, above applies for Net::Twitter::Lite with a few exceptions.

Net::Twitter::Lite does not use traits. Change your constructor call from:

    my $client = Net::Twitter::Lite::WithAPIv1_1->new(%args);


    my $client = Twitter::API->new_with_traits(
        traits => [ qw/Migration ApiMethods/ ],

If you're using the option wrap_result, see the discussion above about the Net::Twitter WrapResult trait. There is migration support for wrap_result. It will be removed in a future release.


Marc Mims <>


This software is copyright (c) 2015-2021 by Marc Mims.

This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as the Perl 5 programming language system itself.